TOEFL Vocabulary - The Complete Vocabulary List

abandon: 1. a lack of control or restraint 2. loss of inhibitions 3. exuberance 4. surrender to one's natural impulses

abandonment: 1. leaving someone, such as a child or a spouse, voluntarily 2. the act of giving something up 3. the act of letting something or someone go

abate: reduce in amount, degree, or intensity; lessen

abbreviate: make (a word, phrase, or text) shorter

abbreviation: 1. a shortened form of a name, phrase or word 2. the act of shortening something

abdicate: 1. leave or give up a throne, right, power, claim, responsibility, or the like, especially in a formal manner; abandon, lay down, or withdraw from 2. fail to do what is required by (a responsibility or duty)

aberration: a departure from what is right, true, correct, etc., typically an unwelcome one

abeyance: 1. a temporary stoppage or delay of activity 2. suspension

abhor: regard with extreme dislike and hatred

abide: 1. to accept 2. to put up with; to tolerate 3. to conform

ability: 1. the capacity to do something 2. a skill or talent in a specific area

abjure: 1. to officially renounce 2. to formally and publicly announce that one no longer believes in something

abnormal: 1. strange 2. not usual or typical 3. not what is considered to be normal

aboard: 1. on a boat or any sort of vehicle, such as a train or plane 2. into a group; as a participant

abolish: 1. to get rid of in an official way 2. to put an end to 3. to completely destroy

abolition: 1. the act of getting rid of something 2. the act of stopping or cancelling something

abrasive: 1. unkind or rude 2. an abrasive substance that is used in order to grind down, clean or polish objects

abridge: 1. to make something shorter while keeping the same meaning 2. to condense 3. to reduce

abrogate: 1. to officially put an end to something, especially a law or another type of formal agreement

abrupt: 1. brusque or curt in behavior or speech 2. unexpected or sudden, most often in an unpleasant or shocking way 3. steep

abscond: leave or escape from a place hurriedly or secretly, typically to avoid detection of, capture, legal prosecution or arrest for an unlawful action

absence: 1. the state or condition of someone or something not being present or not existing 2. a failure to appear

absent: 1. not present in a certain time or location 2. non-existent 3. missing

absolute: 1. complete, definite or perfect 2. not limited in any way 3. unadulterated

absolutely: 1. completely 2. definitely 3. without exception

absolution: 1. giving forgiveness; freeing from blame or fault, especially when referring to religious issues

absorb: 1. to incorporate something 2. to soak up or suck up something 3. to gradually take something in

absorption: 1. the act or process of taking in or absorbing any substance 2. the state of being mentally engrossed in something; total concentration

abstain: deliberately choose not to do or have something that is enjoyable but that may not be healthy, safe, or morally right 2. refrain from voting

abstemious: 1. moderation when consuming something one enjoys, such as alcohol or food 2. showing restraint

abstract: 1. not concrete; not related to a physical object or real event 2. expressing or showing feelings instead of real objects or people 3. difficult to understand because of its complexity 4. theoretical

abstruse: difficult to understand, especially because of being extremely complex

absurd: 1. silly or ridiculous, especially in a laughable way 2. illogical or totally untrue 3. difficult or impossible to believe

abundance: 1. an extremely large quantity of something 2. a quantity that is considered to be more than enough

abundant: 1. great in number 2. available in a large number 3. more than enough; plenty

abuse: 1. misuse of something 2. unfair or hurtful treatment of a person or an animal 3. improper use

academic: 1. related to school or scholarly subjects 2. theoretical; not practical 3. scholarly; good at studying

accede: 1. to formally take on official duties 2. to agree; to give consent 3. to do what someone else says

accelerate: 1. to speed up 2. to go faster 3. to make something happen or to happen at a quicker rate than normal

acceleration: 1. an increase in speed or rate 2. the ability of something to go faster

access: 1. a way of entering or exiting a place 2. the right or permission to use, approach, or enter something or somewhere 3. the act of approaching

accessible: 1. obtainable 2. easy to enter, speak with, or approach 3. easily influenced

accessory: 1. an object that is added to another in order to make it more useful or attractive 2. a person that helps another person commit a crime, but who does not actually take part in the crime

accident: 1. an unforeseen event that causes harm, damage, injury or even death 2. a sudden and unplanned event

accidental: 1. unexpected 2. not predicted 3. happening by chance

accidentally: 1. by chance 2. unexpectedly 3. by mistake

accolade: 1. an award 2. a declaration of praise, approval, or admiration

accommodate: 1. to do a favor or oblige someone 2. to supply 3. to provide space for people to stay or to be 4. to adapt or to make suitable

accommodation: 1. lodgings used for travelers 2. a place to stay or live

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accompaniment: 1. something that accompanies something or someone else 2. music that accompanies a singer or the main tune

accompany: 1. to go along with 2. to be associated with 3. to go somewhere with someone

accomplish: 1. to carry something out; to finish something 2. to be successful in doing something 3. to complete or fulfill

accomplishment: 1. fulfillment, success or achievement 2. something that was done successfully

accord: concurrence of opinions or wills

account: 1. an explanation or description of a specific event or situation 2. a narrative 3. the reasons behind a specific event or action

accountant: 1. a person who keeps and prepares financial reports for businesses and individuals

accounting: 1. the practice or process of recording and keeping financial records of individuals or corporations

accumulate: 1. to collect or gather 2. to amass 3. to increase in quantity or amount

accumulation: 1. the act of growing or increasing in amount over an extended period of time 2. agglomeration

accurate: 1. meticulous or giving careful consideration to the details 2. exact 3. free from errors and mistakes

achieve: 1. to accomplish 2. to reach something through hard work 3. to succeed

acquiesce: 1. to agree to something reticently but without protesting

acquire: 1. to obtain 2. to purchase 3. to develop or learn a habit or skill 4. to pinpoint and hold a target or something else through the use of radar or another tracking device

acquisition: 1. the act of getting something or gaining possession of a skill or a good 2. something that one gets or gains possession of

acrid: 1. a strong, bitter or stinging smell which often creates an unpleasant smell in one's throat 2. a bitter or sharp taste

acrimony: sharpness, harshness, or bitterness of nature, temper, manner, or speech

acumen: the ability to think clearly, make good judgments and take quick decision in a particular subject, such as business or politics

adamant: 1. refusing to be persuaded, or unwilling to change an opinion or decision in spite of pleas, appeals, or reason; stubbornly unyielding 2. too hard to cut, break, or pierce

adapt: 1. to make changes in order to fit a specific situation or purpose 2. to modify 3. to alter something

adaptation: 1. the act of modifying something so that it better fits one's needs 2. change; adjustment

adept: highly skilled or proficient at doing something; expert

adequate: 1. sufficient to fit the requirements or needs 2. good enough, but not excessively good 3. satisfactory

adjacent: 1. near 2. close to 3. neighboring 4. touching

adjust: 1. to make changes to 2. to settle or adapt to a situation

adjustment: 1. a change or modification that makes something more suitable or accurate for the person or situation 2. an adaptation

administration: 1. a person or group that governs or manages a particular organization 2. the act of controlling a particular organization, group or plan

adroit: very clever or skillful in a physical or mental way

adulation: excessive admiration, praise, or flattery

adversity: a difficult, unlucky, or unpleasant situation, condition, or event; misfortune; tragedy

advocate: 1. publicly speak, write, plead, recommend, support or argue for a cause, particular policy or way of doing things 2. a person who publicly speaks, writes, pleads, recommends, supports or argues for a cause, particular policy or way of doing things

aesthetic: 1. relating to beauty or the study or appreciation of beauty or good taste 2. nice to look at

affable: 1. kind or friendly 2. warm and open to others

affect: 1. to impact someone emotionally or mentally 2. to produce a change in

affected: 1. behaving in an artificial way to impress people 2. emotionally stirred or moved 3. impaired, harmed, or attacked, as by climate or disease 4. artificial and not sincere

aggregate: 1. to collect or bring together 2. to add amounts together

aid: 1. help; assistance 2. a person who helps someone or something 3. a helpful device

alacrity: a cheerful readiness, promptness, or willingness to do something

albeit: 1. although 2. even if 3. notwithstanding

alchemy: 1. a type of chemistry from the Medieval age which focused on two major tasks: turning ordinary metals into gold and developing an elixir that allows people to stay young forever 2. magical powers of transformation or creation

allay: 1. to calm or to lessen negative feelings or pain 2. to pacify 3. to alleviate or relieve

allocate: divide and give out (something) for a particular purpose

aloof: 1. unfriendly or unwilling to interact with others 2. distant 3. uninvolved

alter: 1. to change or modify 2. to make something different 3. to castrate or spay an animal

alternative: 1. not traditional or usual 2. being a choice; offering a choice 3. existing outside traditional society

amalgamate: mix, merge, combine or unite to form one thing

amass: 1. to gather or collect goods of any kind over a long period of time 2. to accumulate

ambiguous: 1. not expressed or understood clearly 2. open to or having several possible meanings or interpretations

ambivalence: 1. the state of having simultaneous contradicting feelings towards an someone or something 2. uncertainty 3. fluctuation

ameliorate: 1. to improve 2. to make better 3. to make tolerable

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amenable: 1. ready or willing to answer, act, agree, or yield 2. responsible or answerable

amend: 1. to make changes to 2. to improve 3. to alter 4. to remove errors from

amendment: 1. a change that is made to something, such as a law, an agreement or any other document 2. a minor change or addition to something

amiable: pleasant and friendly; good-natured and likable

amicable: characterized by or exhibiting friendliness or goodwill, often despite a difficult situation

amity: 1. a positive or friendly relationship 2. a peaceful relationship, especially when referring to two or more nations or specific groups

amorphous: 1. without a defined shape or form 2. unorganized 3. missing a clear structure

anachronism: a person or a thing that is mistakenly placed in a time where it does not belong to, especially a thing or person that belongs to an earlier time

analogous: 1. similar to 2. alike or related in a way that allows analogies to be drawn

analogy: 1. a comparison designed to show that two or more things are similar 2. partial resemblance 3. comparability

analyse: 1. to examine something critically 2. to separate something into its parts in order to examine it or better understand it 3. to psychoanalyze

analysis: 1. the study or examination of something in an attempt to define it or understand it 2. investigation 3. the act of breaking a subject down into parts to study it

anarchy: 1. a lack of government or social control of any sort 2. lawlessness and confusion due to an absence of control or structure

anecdote: a short, often funny story, especially about something some happening, usually personal or biographical

animosity: 1. clear negativity or hatred of someone or something 2. strong opposition 3. open hostility

annex: 1. to take control or possession over a piece of land without permission and often by the use of force 2. to add or attach 3.

annual: 1. occurring each year 2. payable on a yearly basis or calculated over a year 3. yearly

anomaly: 1. something strange or different from what is considered to be normal 2. unusual or unexpected 3. irregularity

anonymous: 1. with no name known or acknowledged 2. made or done by someone unknown 3. having no unusual or interesting features

antagonist: a person who opposes to, struggles against, or competes with someone or something, especially in combat; adversary; opponent

anthology: 1. a book that contains many different selections, often from various authors 2. a collection of music or different works of art

anthropology: the study of human races, origins, societies, beliefs, cultures, and its physical development

anticipate: 1. to predict or foresee 2. to look forward to something 3. to prepare for something or deal with something before it happens

antipathy: a strong feeling of intense aversion, dislike, or hostility

antiquated: 1. so old that it is no longer fashionable 2. old-fashioned 3. obsolete 4. out-dated

apathetic: feeling or showing little or no interest, enthusiasm, or concern, especially over something important

apathy: 1. uninterested and not energetic behavior 2. lack of interest 3. lack of concern

apocryphal: 1. something that is quite possibly untrue or is of doubtful authenticity, despite the fact that many people believe it to be true

apparent: 1. clear and able to be seen 2. obvious; evident 3. easily understood

appease: 1. to calm a situation 2. to pacify a situation by giving one's enemies what they demand 3. to soothe

append: 1. to attach something; to affix 2. to add something to a written work such as a letter or a book

appendix: 1. additional material that is found at the end of a book, an essay or another written piece 2. added information

appreciate: 1. to become more valuable or increase in worth 2. to be grateful or thankful for 3. to understand the true meaning of a situation

appreciation: 1. an increase in value 2. the act of recognizing something's quality, worth, validity, merit, etc. 3. an expression of thanks or gratitude 4. judgment

apprehensive: 1. worried about something that is going to occur in the future 2. quick to understand

approach: to move nearer

approbation: 1. approval, which is often given warmly or officially 2. accolade

appropriate: 1. to take possession or control of something 2. to steal 3. to set aside or to devote to a specific purpose

approximate: 1. to come close to something 2. to be similar to something 3. to get near

apt: 1. exactly suitable; appropriate 2. likely to do something; having a tendency to do something 3. quick to learn or understand

arbitrary: 1. determined in a random way 2. based on preference rather than logic

arbitrate: officially try to settle a disagreement between opposing or contending parties or sides after hearing the opinions and ideas of both

arcane: known or understood by only a few; secret or mysterious

archaic: 1. antiquated 2. belonging to a time in the past 3. old-fashioned

archetype: 1. a perfect example or model for something 2. a prototype 3. the original pattern or model

area: 1. a geographical region 2. part of a surface or space 3. a subject or field of study

arid: 1. very dry, especially having insufficient rainfall to support trees or plants 2. lacking in interest, excitement, or meaning

arrogate: 1. to appropriate or take ownership of something without the power or right to do so 2. to claim something in a way that is illegal or unfair

articulate: 1. capable of expressing oneself in a clear and coherent manner 2. clear and well formulated language

artisan: 1. a craftsman 2. a worker who has a specific skill and is able to make things by hand 3. a company or person that produces small batches of high quality goods

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ascendancy: the advantage, power, or influence that one person or group has over another; supremacy; domination

ascetic: avoiding physical pleasures and living a simple and severe self-disciplined life, typically for religious reasons

aspect: 1. a part or quality of something 2. one part of a situation 3. exposure; the way in which a structure is facing

assail: physically attack or severely criticize (someone or something) in a violent or angry way

assemble: 1. to put something together by joining its parts 2. to bring people together into one single group

assembly: 1. a gathering of people that takes place because the people share a common goal or interest; a meeting 2. a gathering of teachers and students where information is shared

assess: 1. to estimate or determine the value of something; to appraise 2. to evaluate

assessment: 1. the act of evaluating and judging something 2. one's judgments or observations about a particular subject

assiduous: showing hard work, great care, and attention to detail; diligent

assist: 1. to support or help; to aid

assistance: 1. help or support 2. the act of helping or supporting someone

assuage: 1. make less intense or severe 2. appease or satisfy

assume: 1. to believe that something is true without proof 2. to take on a role or responsibility 3. to adopt an idea

assurance: 1. a feeling of confidence in oneself or something else 2. a promise designed to give confidence

assure: 1. to assure someone that something is true, in hopes of getting rid of doubts 2. to confidently promise; to pledge 3. to guarantee 4. to make secure or safe

astute: 1. crafty 2. possessing the ability to correctly judge situations and use one's observations to take advantage of the situation 3. shrewd

asylum: 1. protection, safety, or the right to stay, especially that given by a government to people who has escaped from war or political trouble in their own country 2. an institution for the care of the mentally ill, or of the aged, the poor, etc.

atheist: 1. a person who does not believe that God or other supreme beings exist

atrophy: 1. (of body tissue or a part of the body) a wasting or decrease in size because of disease, injury, or lack of use 2. gradual degeneration, decline, or decrease in effectiveness or vigor due to underuse or neglect

attach: 1. to fasten or join two or more objects 2. to include 3. to add a file to an e-mail

attached: 1. joined or fastened together somehow 2. connected 3. feeling love or attraction for someone

attain: 1. to succeed at something 2. to achieve 3. to reach or arrive at

attenuate: reduce the strength, effect, density, amount, or size of something

attitude: 1. a feeling or an opinion; a mental position 2. physical posture 3. a way of acting, thinking or feeling

attribute: 1. a trait or quality 2. a characteristic

audacious: extremely bold or daring, despite difficulties, risks, or the negative attitudes of other people

augment: 1. to increase something in size, quantity or value 2. to enlarge 3. to enhance

August: impressive; majestic; inspiring awe or admiration

auspicious: 1. showing signs or suggesting that a positive and successful future is likely 2. favored by fortune; prosperous; fortunate

austere: 1. strict or cold in one's behavior or appearance 2. serious 3. plain and lacking adornment, decoration or luxury

author: 1. the creator of something 2. the person who writes a document 3. the person responsible for an action

authority: 1. power; the ability and right to control 2. the person or group that is in charge of a person, group or region 3. an expert on a specific subject 4. jurisdiction 5. official permission

automate: 1. to mechanize a process, replacing people with machines 2. to operate by automation

automaton: a self-operating machine or mechanism, especially a robot

available: 1. free and ready to be used; not busy 2. accessible 3. at someone's disposal

avarice: extreme greed to get or keep money or possessions; cupidity

aversion: 1. dislike of or repugnance toward something or someone 2. the person or thing that causes this strong dislike

aware: 1. cognizant; knowing 2. informed about something 3. conscious of something

balk: 1. to stop suddenly and refuse to continue 2. to hinder or obstruct 3. to hesitate 4. to stubbornly refuse or to be unwilling to continue or let something happen

banal: boring, ordinary, or not interesting because it contains nothing new, original, or unusual

bane: 1. the cause behind something negative such as death or distress 2. something or someone that greatly annoys someone 3. a curse

bard: 1. a poet 2. a poet that composes or recites lyric poetry

beguile: 1. to trick someone, convincing them to do something 2. to charm someone 3. to mislead

behalf: 1. in the interest of 2. on part of 3. supporting 4. representing

belabor: 1. to attack someone in either a physical or verbal way 2. to talk about something repeatedly or at great length and with great detail

beleaguer: 1. to harass or create trouble for 2. to besiege or surround a place, person or group with troops

belie: 1. give a false representation to; disguise or misrepresent 2. show to be false; contradict; prove false

bellicose: 1. hostile 2. aggressive and willing to fight 3. fond of arguing or fighting 4. quarrelsome

belligerent: inclined or eager to fight or argue; hostile and aggressive

benefit: 1. an advantage 2. a gift or payment from an employer to an employee 3. a payment from an insurance company or social welfare program 4. something intended to help 5. an event designed to raise money for someone or for a cause

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benevolent: kind, generous, and helpful; charitable

benign: 1. not harmful 2. displaying kindness or gentleness 3. beneficial

bequeath: 1. leave or give (personal property) by will 2. pass (something) on to another; hand down

bias: supporting or opposing a particular person or thing in an unfair way, especially in a way considered to be unfair

bilk: 1. to cheat or swindle someone, getting them to give you money you do not deserve 2. to slip away or evade

blandishment: a flattering or pleasing statement, speech, or action intended to flatter, coax, entice someone gently into doing something

blasphemy: 1. an action or a message which shows disrespect for a religion, God, or a holy object

blatant: 1. obvious, easily detectable, or blunt 2. noisy in a vulgar way 3. obtrusive

blighted: 1. suffering from a disease 2. anything that destroys, prevents growth, or causes devaluation

blithe: 1. happy or joyous 2. carefree 3. casual and not worried about the possible negative consequences of one's actions

bog: an area having a wet, spongy ground that is too soft to support a heavy body; a small marsh or swamp

boisterous: 1. noisy, energetic, and lacking in restraint or discipline 2. (of waves, weather, wind, etc.) wild or stormy

bolster: 1. a long, narrow cushion or pillow 2. support or reinforce; strengthen

bombast: speech or writing that is meant to impress people but is not sincere, meaningful, or does not express things very clearly

bombastic: (of speech, writing, etc.) high-sounding but with little meaning, usually intended to impress people; inflated; pretentious

bond: 1. the link or connection between people or things 2. a written promise 3. a force that unites or pushes people together 4. a certificate of debt issued by a government or company, promising to pay borrowed money back over a specified period of time

boon: 1. a blessing or something helpful 2. a positive result that is gained through having made a request

boorish: rude and bad-mannered; of or like a boor; insensitive; awkward

bourgeois: 1. middle class and acting in a way that is consistent with what is expected of the middle class 2. materialistic 3. typical, conventional

breach: 1. an act of breaking or failing to follow a law, rule, trust, faith, promise, agreement, or code of conduct 2. a hole, opening or space in a wall, fence, barrier, or line of defense, especially during a military attack

brevity: 1. briefness or shortness of duration 2. conciseness or using few words

brief: 1. concise 2. short in duration 3. curt 4. scanty

broach: 1. to start to discuss a difficult or otherwise uncomfortable subject 2. to talk about a difficult subject for the first time

brusque: a very direct, brief, and unfriendly way in speech or manner

bulk: 1. the size or mass of something 2. the largest portion or part of something 3. great in quantity

bulwark: 1. something or someone which protects one from negative, dangerous or unpleasant things or gives support and encouragement in bad situations 2. a wall built for defense

buoyant: 1. able to float 2. cheerful and optimistic

burgeon: 1. grow, increase, expand or develop quickly 2. begin to grow or blossom (as buds or branches)

burnish: 1. to make something brilliant or shiny by rubbing it 2. to polish

cacophonous: involving or producing a harsh, discordant, and unpleasant mixture of loud sounds

cacophony: a harsh, discordant, and unpleasant mixture of loud sounds

cadge: 1. ask for or obtain (something) for free 2. beg or get by begging

cajole: persuade by flattery or promises; wheedle; coax

callous: unkind, cruel, and without sympathy or feeling about the problems or suffering of other people

candid: 1. direct or honest, even in situations when the truth is considered to be uncomfortable or unpleasant; frank; straightforward 2. impartial or unbiased 3. unrehearsed or informal

candor: 1. the quality or state of being honest or frank, especially when the truth is painful or difficult 2. fairness; impartiality

cantankerous: bad-tempered, quarrelsome, and often angry and annoyed

capable: 1. able to do something 2. quite good at a certain task; skilled

capacious: capable of containing a large quantity easily; spacious; roomy

capacity: 1. the ability to do something 2. the maximum number of things that a place or object can hold

capitulate: 1. surrender unconditionally or on stipulated terms 2. give up all resistance, usually because they are stronger than you

caprice: 1. a sudden, unpredictable and unexpected change of mood, opinion, behavior, or the weather without any good reason 2. whim

capricious: suddenly and unexpectedly changing mood or behavior without any good reason; impulsive and unpredictable

castigate: criticize someone or something severely

catalyst: 1. (Chemistry) a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction 2. somebody, something or an event that quickly causes change or action

category: 1. a group of things organized due to the fact that they share a common trait 2. a group or class 3. a division

catharsis: 1. a purging or cleansing of any part of the human body 2. a release of strong feelings or emotional tensions, especially through art

caucus: 1. a closed or private meeting of political officials or party members in which party affairs are discussed or candidates are selected 2. a group of politicians with similar interests

caustic: 1. capable of burning, corroding, destroying, or eating away by chemical action 2. severely critical or sarcastic, often in a funny or clever way

cease: 1. to stop doing something; to quit 2. to discontinue 3. to come to an end

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censure: strong criticism or disapproval of (someone or something), especially in a formal statement

chagrin: a feeling of being very annoyed, disappointed, or embarrassed because of failure, disappointment, or humiliation

challenge: 1. to question or express objection to 2. to test someone 3. to invite someone to take part in a debate or competition; to dare

channel: 1. a route through which water flows or can flow 2. a television or radio station 3. a course of direction through which actions or ideas pass

chapter: 1. a section of a book or a written work 2. a branch of a society or group 3. a stage in a person's life

chart: 1. a drawing or illustration which displays information in an easy to understand way; a graph 2. a detailed map used for navigation of the sea or air

chary: 1. cautious about taking risks or acting 2. choosy or sparing

chastise: 1. punish, especially by beating 2. scold or criticize someone severely for doing something wrong

chicanery: the use of clever, unfair, or dishonest methods to achieve a political, financial, or legal purpose

chide: 1. express mild disapproval of (someone) 2. scold mildly so as to correct or improve; reprimand

choleric: 1. hot-tempered and easily angered 2. prone to become angry quickly and/or easily

churlish: 1. rude, unfriendly, and unpleasant 2. difficult to work with or deal with

circumscribe: 1. draw a line around; encircle 2. restrict something such as power, rights, or opportunities within limits

circumspect: 1. prudent or careful about taking risks 2. cautious and wary about the outcome of an action

circumstance: 1. the conditions surrounding an event 2. a factor which influences something

circumvent: 1. surround or circle around (an enemy, for example); enclose or entrap 2. avoid (defeat, failure, unpleasantness, etc.), especially cleverly or illegally 3. go around or bypass

cite: 1. to use information or exact words from another source; to quote 2. to use as an example

civil: 1. not related to the church or military, but rather the ordinary people of a country 2. secular 3. polite or courteous

clamor: 1. a loud outcry, uproar, demand, complaint or shouting 2. a loud noise that continues for a long time

clandestine: kept or done secretly and often illegal

clarify: 1. to make something clearer or easier to understand 2. to remove ambiguity

clarity: 1. clearness of expression or thought 2. the ability to be understood 3. the ability to think in a clear way

classical: 1. relating to ancient cultures 2. respecting tradition or the original way of doing things 3. traditional

clause: 1. a provision or stipulation in a contract or another formal document 2. a phrase containing a subject and a verb that is part of a larger sentence

clemency: 1. mildness or kindness, especially at the time of deciding on punishment 2. pleasantness or mildness of weather

coalesce: 1. grow together or into one body 2. unite or merge into a single body, group, or mass

code: 1. a rule or law which governs an organization or a political region 2. a set of words or images which are used to communicate a message in a secret way or in an abbreviated form

coercion: 1. persuasion through threats or force 2. using force to convince someone to do something

cogent: 1. an argument that is structured in such a way that makes it easily believable 2. something convincing 3. a logical argument

coherence: 1. a logical ordering of things 2. consistency 3. the state of being logical

coherent: 1. consistent or logical 2. understandable 3. capable of explaining one's thoughts or ideas in a way that is easily understood 4. unified; sticking together

coincide: 1. to happen at the same time 2. to be present at the same time and place 3. to agree with or be in agreement

collaborate: 1. work together, especially in a joint intellectual effort 2. cooperate with an enemy who has invaded your country during a war

collapse: 1. to cave in due to pressure or lack of support 2. to fall down 3. to break down 4. to fold into a smaller or more compact shape, allowing something to be more easily stored

colleague: 1. a coworker 2. someone you work with in the same profession or organization

colloquial: 1. not formal 2. familiar and conversational 3. informal

collusion: 1. a conspiracy 2. secret cooperation or activities for illegal or fraudulent purposes

comment: 1. to say something 2. to make a remark 3. to explain something through a verbal or written remark

commission: 1. a fee or payment for goods or services rendered 2. a request to create a specific work for someone 3. a group which studies a certain issue

commit: to do something

commitment: 1. one's promise or willingness to do something 2. an obligation, engagement, pledge or understanding

commodity: 1. a product or good that can be bought and sold 2. something useful or of value

communicate: 1. to transmit something, such as energy or an illness 2. to transmit information to others through written, verbal or non verbal words or signals

communication: 1. the act of transmitting information from one person to another 2. the message that is transmitted

community: 1. a group of people living in the same area or region 2. a group of people who share common interests 3. the greater public

compatible: 1. able to exist in harmony 2. well-suited 3. capable of being mixed

compendious: containing or presenting briefly and concisely all the essentials; concise but comprehensive; succinct

compensate: 1. to pay someone for something that has been lost, damaged, or taken away 2. to make up for something negative 3. to pay someone for their services

compensation: 1. a reward or a payment that is given in exchange for some sort of negative incident

compile: 1. to gather things together 2. to put things together in a logical or orderly form

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complaisant: 1. willing or eager to please other people 2. cheerfully obliging 3. agreeable

complement: 1. to go well with something 2. to make perfect; to complete

complex: 1. complicated and not easy to understand 2. involving or made from many different parts

component: 1. one specific part of something 2. an ingredient or element

compound: 1. to increase 2. to combine 3. to make something worse 4. to pay interest

comprehensive: 1. all-encompassing 2. thorough 3. extensive 4. dealing with most or all aspects of a certain issue

comprise: 1. to be made up of 2. to be composed of 3. to include; to contain

compromise: 1. a settlement of differences by mutual concessions 2. reduce the quality, value, or degree of something 3. endanger the interests or reputation of

compute: 1. to calculate 2. to determine by using a calculator or computer

conceive: 1. to draw up or think up a plan 2. to get pregnant 3. to invent something

concentrate: 1. to focus on something 2. to strengthen something 3. to bring things or people together in a common location

concept: 1. an idea or a notion 2. a plan 3. an experimental model for a future product

concern: A matter of interest or importance

concise: 1. expressed in few words 2. clear and succinct 3. brief yet clear

conclude: 1. to finish 2. to terminate or cause something to come to an end 3. to deduce or to infer based on what one has seen or heard

concomitant: 1. something that is connected to something else, often occurring at the same time 2. something associated with another thing

concurrent: 1. contemporary 2. happening or existing at the same time 3. simultaneous

conduct: to lead or guide

confer: 1. to grant something, like a title, to someone 2. to discuss or exchange opinions

conference: 1. a meeting of people who share a similar interest attend a variety of talks or sessions about a specific subject or topic 2. a meeting

confine: 1. to limit or restrict 2. to forcibly keep someone or something in a certain place; to imprison

confirm: 1. to check 2. to verify 3. to strengthen 4. to reinforce

confirmed: 1. firmly settled in a habit 2. established 3. unlikely to change

conflict: 1. a fight or a disagreement between two or more parties 2. a struggle 3. an incompatibility

confluence: 1. a place where two rivers or streams join to become one 2. a coming together of people or things

conform: 1. to meet (standards) 2. to comply with 3. to be similar to 4. to behave in a way that is expected and acceptable

conformity: 1. agreement or compliance with a particular subject or issue 2. behavior that displays compliance with socially accepted rules or norms

confound: 1. to surprise or confuse someone 2. to mix something up 3. to refute 4. to bewilder

congenial: 1. (of a person) agreeable, suitable, or pleasing in nature or character 2. (of a thing) pleasant or agreeable because suited to or adapted in one's spirit, feeling, temper, etc.; compatible

congenital: 1. present since birth 2. inherent 3. inborn

connoisseur: 1. an expert or a specialist in a certain matter 2. a discerning judge 3. an expert about a certain subject like food or art

conscientious: 1. controlled by or done according to, what one knows is right 2. working hard and careful to do things well

consensus: 1. majority opinion 2. an opinion or decision reached by all, or nearly all, members of a group 3. a general agreement

consent: 1. to allow or agree with 2. to grant permission 3. to approve

consequent: 1. resulting 2. following 3. progressing logically

consider: to think carefully

considerable: 1. quite large; substantial 2. worthy of recognition or consideration 3. noteworthy

consist: 1. to be composed of 2. to be inherent 3. to be compatible

consistent: 1. regular 2. not changing over time 3. constantly acting or behaving the same way

conspicuous: 1. obvious; easily noticed 2. attracting attention, especially because it is strange or unusual

constant: 1. unchanging 2. firm or resolute 3. persistent; continuing over a long period of time 4. loyal

consternation: a feeling of worry, shock, or confusion, often caused when something unexpected happens

constitute: 1. to formally set up or establish 2. to appoint someone to a position 3. to be the same as or equivalent to

constitutional: 1. permitted by the constitution of a country, group or business 2. related to the constitution of a country, group or business

constrain: 1. to keep back; to confine 2. to restrain; to limit 3. to force; to oblige

construct: 1. to create or to form 2. to build; to put pieces together to form a whole object 3. to combine smaller pieces to develop something new

construction: 1. the act or business of building things, especially structures

consult: 1. to get advice from someone or something; to ask someone their opinion 2. to consider; to take into account

consume: 1. to eat 2. to use; to use up 3. to totally destroy

consumer: 1. a person who purchases goods or services

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consummate: 1. perfect 2. indicating great skill or ability 3. superb; supreme

contact: 1. to communicate with someone over the phone or by writing a letter, e-mail or text message

contemporary: 1. from or existing in the same time period 2. modern

contempt: 1. a feeling that someone or something is unimportant and deserves no respect 2. disregard for something that is usually respected or feared 3. open disrespect or willful disobedience of the authority of a court of law or legislative body

contentious: 1. tending to argue or quarrel; quarrelsome 2. causing, involving, or characterized by argument or controversy

context: 1. the circumstances surrounding something 2. the words before and after something that help explain what it means 3. the circumstances or situation in which something happens, which help to explain it

contract: 1. to get smaller; to shrink 2. to make smaller 3. to hire someone to work under a contract 4. to get

contradict: 1. to make a statement that goes against what has been expressed by another 2. to deny 3. to disagree with something

contradiction: 1. a difference between two or more messages or statements which shows that one of the statements must be wrong 2. an inconsistency

contrary: 1. opposite or completely different 2. obstinate 3. unfavorable

contrast: 1. the act of finding differences between two or more things 2. a difference between two or more things

contribute: 1. to write for a newspaper or a magazine 2. to give goods, money or time and effort to a person or group in order to help them

contribution: 1. something one gives or does in order to help reach a shared achievement 2. a donation 3. a specific tax payment

controversy: 1. a disagreement or dispute over a specific subject about which people have differing opinions 2. a heated discussion or argument

contusion: 1. a bruise 2. an injury that doesn't cut one's skin

conundrum: 1. a difficult problem, for which there is no clear answer 2. a puzzle or riddle that can be answered using a pun

convene: 1. to bring people together for a formal or official purpose such as a meeting 2. to gather

convention: 1. a formal political agreement 2. a gathering or meeting of people or professionals with a shared interest 3. a social custom

conventional: 1. traditional 2. based on what is considered to be traditional or typical 3. common 4. related to or based on a convention or an agreement

converse: 1. to talk with a person or a group of people 2. to have a conversation

conversely: 1. reciprocally 2. in a contrary manner

convert: 1. to change something; to transform 2. to undergo a change 3. to change to another religion

convince: 1. to make someone believe what you are saying; to persuade

convinced: 1. very sure 2. persuaded 3. certain

convivial: 1. (of an atmosphere or event) friendly, lively, and making you feel happy and welcome; festive 2. (of a person) cheerful and friendly; jovial 3. fond of eating, drinking, and good company; sociable; jovial

cooperate: 1. to work together with one or more other people in order to reach a shared or mutually beneficial goal

cooperative: 1. done with others 2. willing to work with others

coordinate: 1. to harmonize 2. to make two or more things work well or efficiently together 3. to match

coordination: 1. the act of making various parts work together in one organized or harmonious way

copious: large in quantity or number; affording ample supply; abundant; plentiful

core: 1. the center of something 2. the most important or essential part of something

corporate: 1. belonging or pertaining to a large company or corporation 2. common or shared between people or a group of people

corpulent: 1. overweight 2. fat 3. physically large

correspond: 1. to communicate through messages, letters or e-mails 2. to be related to or quite similar to

corresponding: 1. related to 2. comparable 3. matching 4. directly related

corroborate: strengthen, confirm or give support to (a statement, theory, etc.) by providing information or evidence that agrees with them

cosmopolitan: 1. common to or representative of all or many different countries and cultures 2. containing or having experience of many different countries and cultures 3. including people from many different countries 4. free from local or national habits or prejudice

counterfeit: 1. to forge a copy of something, often for illegal or dishonest reasons 2. to create a high-quality copy of something with the intention of defrauding someone

couple: 1. two people who are romantically involved 2. two similar or equal things

craven: 1. contemptibly lacking in courage; cowardly 2. a cowardly person

create: 1. to invent something; to develop something new 2. to cause or bring about

credible: 1. trustworthy 2. easy to believe or convincing 3. reliable

credit: 1. money that is given to someone with the understanding that it will be paid back with interest 2. recognition or praise

credulous: 1. gullible or easily deceived 2. overly willing to believe what one sees or hears 3. easily tricked or convinced

cringe: 1. to move away from something or someone suddenly because you are surprised, afraid or embarrassed

criteria: 1. the standards or rules on which something is judged or based

crucial: 1. of the utmost importance 2. extremely important 3. decisive

cryptic: 1. mysterious 2. possessing a hidden meaning 3. written or said using a special code or cypher

culpable: deserving blame or censure

culture: 1. behaviors, beliefs, and standards that are shared between one large group of people or a society 2. art, such as music, literature, dance, theater, etc.

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cumulative: 1. increasing due to the constant addition of other elements 2. gradually increasing 3. snowballing

cupidity: 1. avarice 2. a strong or excessive desire for possessions or wealth

currency: 1. money; any other medium of exchange

cursory: quick and probably not detailed

cycle: 1. an extended period of time 2. a bi- or tri- cycle 3. a series of events which repeat over time

cynical: 1. displaying a belief that people only act in self-interested ways 2. pessimistic or skeptical 3. distrustful of humans or human nature 4. contemptuous or condescending

data: 1. information, facts or figures about a specific subject that is often used to make a decision 2. information used by a computer

dearth: a lack of something or an inadequate supply

debacle: 1. a complete collapse or failure, often in an embarrassing way 2. a sudden, disastrous collapse, downfall, or defeat

debase: 1. to degrade 2. to adulterate 3. to reduce in quality or value 4. to humiliate

debate: 1. a civil or controlled argument between two or more people or groups with opposing viewpoints 2. a formal discussion before a vote 3. discussion

decimate: 1. destroy, kill, or remove a large number or proportion of (a group) 2. reduce, damage, or destroy the strength or effectiveness of something severely 3. select by lot and kill every tenth one of

decline: 1. a fall in the number of something; a reduction 2. the act of reducing in number 3. a downward slope

decorum: 1. appropriateness and good taste in behavior, speech, dress, etc. 2. etiquette 3. (often used in plural) decorums: the conventions or requirements of polite behavior

decry: 1. to openly express displeasure or disagreement with 2. to condemn

deduce: 1. to reach a conclusion based on the facts available 2. to infer

deference: respectful submission to someone or something

deferential: 1. considerate 2. respectful towards one's elders or superiors 3. polite

define: 1. to explain exactly what something means 2. to describe what a word means 3. to clarify 4. to limit

definite: 1. exact 2. clear 3. undeniable 4. certain and unlikely to change

definition: 1. a clear outline of something 2. the meaning of a word or phrase

degradation: 1. the act or process of degrading such as in rank, status, or condition 2. treat someone or something poorly and without respect; humiliation

deleterious: 1. damaging or harmful 2. injurious to health

deliberate: 1. to carefully debate or think about something serious 2. to thoughtfully weigh the available options

delineate: 1. describe or portray (something) clearly and precisely 2. draw or trace the outline of; sketch or trace in outline

demagogue: a person, especially an orator or political leader, who gains power and popularity by appealing to emotion, passions, prejudice, etc. rather than by using rational argument in order to win them over quickly and so gain power

demonstrate: 1. to deliberately show or prove 2. to make clear

demur: 1. to hesitate because you have doubts or object to something 2. to refuse to do something 3. to voice opposition

demure: (especially of a woman or her behavior) reserved, modest, shy, and well behaved

denigrate: 1. criticize in a derogatory and often unfair manner; defame 2. make (something) seem less important or valuable; belittle

denote: 1. to be a name or symbol for 2. to indicate 3. to mean; to symbolize

denounce: 1. to condemn or accuse something or someone, often in a formal manner 2. to strongly and publicly criticize someone or something

deny: 1. to say that something is not true 2. to claim one is not guilty of something; to not admit 3. to not let someone have something

depict: 1. show (someone or something) in a picture, drawing, painting, photograph, etc. 2. describe (someone or something) using words, a story, etc.

deplete: 1. to cause a great reduction in the fullness or size of 2. to use up 3. to decrease the number of something

deplore: 1. to believe something is wrong or bad 2. to lament; to regret 3. to feel great sadness about

depose: 1. remove someone important from office or a position of power suddenly and forcefully 2. testify or affirm under oath, especially in a written statement

deprecate: 1. criticize or express disapproval of (someone or something) 2. depreciate; belittle

depreciation: 1. decrease in value due to age, wear, decay, market conditions, etc. 2. a decrease in the purchasing or exchange value of money 3. an instance of disparaging or belittlement

depredation: 1. a predatory attack 2. an act of attacking, plundering, or preying upon

depress: 1. to press or force down 2. to make someone feel quite sad 3. to weaken 4. to lower the amount of something

depression: 1. extreme sadness 2. a dip in a surface 3. a severe recession in an economy

derivative: 1. developed from, based on, influenced by, or copied something else; derived 2. copied or adapted from others; not original; secondary

derive: 1. to get something from a source 2. to deduce 3. to show or trace the origin of

derogatory: showing a critical or disrespectful attitude

descry: 1. see (something unclear or distant) by looking carefully 2. discover by looking carefully

desecrate: 1. to pollute something with violence or spoil something, especially in reference to holy places

design: 1. a sketch or a plan that shows what something will be like when it is produced or constructed 2. a pattern or plan

despite: 1. hatred or malice 2. injury

destitute: 1. extremely poor and lacking money, food, a home, or possessions 2. (often followed by of) destitute of: deprived of, devoid of, or lacking

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detect: 1. to note or to feel something 2. to discover or catch 3. to note the presence of

deter: 1. to discourage or keep someone from doing something 2. to make someone decide not to do something by making them fear the consequences or repercussions

deteriorate: 1. to get or become worse 2. to depreciate 3. to disintegrate over time

deterrent: something that discourages; tending to deter

detrimental: 1. causing damage or injury 2. harmful

device: 1. a contraption used to perform specific tasks 2. an explosive, like a bomb 3. a method used to do something

devoid: completely lacking something that is necessary or usual; destitute or empty (usually followed by of = devoid of)

devote: 1. to dedicate time or resources to something 2. to set apart

diatribe: an angry, bitter, and sharply abusive speech or piece of writing that strongly criticizes, denounces, or attacks against someone or something

didactic: 1. intended to teach something, especially a moral lesson 2. too much inclined to teach others, often in a way that is annoying

differentiate: 1. to determine or recognize the difference between two or more things; to distinguish 2. to make one thing unlike another

diffident: modest or shy because of a lack of self-confidence in one's own ability, worth, or fitness

diffuse: 1. pour out and cause to spread freely, as a fluid 2. spread or scatter over a wide area widely or thinly; disseminate; dispersed; not concentrated in one area 3. spread among a large group of people 4. cause (light) to spread evenly to reduce glare

digress: leave or move away from the main subject being discussed temporarily in talking or writing

digression: a temporary departure from the main subject, especially in speech or writing

dilatory: 1. causing or tending to cause delay, gain time, or defer decision 2. inclined to delay or procrastinate; slow or late in doing things

dilemma: 1. a serious problem 2. a situation in which a difficult decision must be made

diligent: steady, hard-working, and careful in one's work or duties; industrious; painstaking

dimension: 1. a property or way of measuring space 2. a part or aspect of something larger

diminish: 1. to reduce or make smaller 2. to become smaller or less

dire: 1. causing or involving great fear or suffering; dreadful; terrible 2. warning of or indicating dreadful or terrible future (trouble, disaster, misfortune, etc.) 3. extremely serious or urgent; requiring immediate action

disabuse: free (a person) from a falsehood, misconception, deception, or error

discern: 1. see, recognize, find out, or understand something that is far away or not very clear 2. perceive or recognize (someone or something) with difficulty by the sight or some other sense 3. come to know, recognize, or distinguish mentally

discount: a reduction in the usual price of something

discredit: 1. damage the credit or reputation of (someone); disgrace 2. cause (someone or something) to seem dishonest or untrue

discrepancy: 1. a difference or variation between things that should be identical 2. inconsistency 3. disagreement

discrete: 1. distinct 2. separate 3. not continuous

discretion: 1. the ability to judge people or situations wisely and make the right choices 2. the ability to behave in a way that does not cause offense

discursive: 1. prone to straying from the main subject of a conversation or a lesson 2. rambling or superficially covering a wide range of topics

disdain: the feeling of not liking someone or something and thinking that they are not important and do not deserve any interest, respect, notice, response, etc.

disingenuous: 1. not straightforward; not candid or frank; insincere 2. slyly deceptive or misleading, typically by pretending that one knows less about something than one really does

disinterested: 1. impartial; not influenced by opinion, prejudice, etc.; free from bias 2. uninterested; indifferent

disparage: 1. speak of in a slighting or disrespectful way; belittle 2. lower in rank or reputation

disparity: 1. a large difference between two or more things 2. inequality 3. incongruity

dispassionate: not influenced or affected by passion, emotion, or bias

dispel: 1. make (a doubt, fear, belief, feeling, or idea) go away or end, usually by proving them wrong or unnecessary 2. drive away or off in various directions; disperse; dissipate

displace: 1. to force someone or something out of its proper place or position 2. to take over for 3. to remove

displacement: 1. the act of removing someone or something from the place it held or lived previously

display: 1. to show or present 2. to demonstrate 3. to reveal

dispose: 1. to get rid of or throw away 2. to make someone feel a certain way 3. to arrange

dissemble: 1. hide your true feelings, opinions, motives, beliefs, etc. 2. hide under a false appearance; feign

disseminate: 1. spread (something, especially news, information, ideas, etc.) widely 2. scatter widely, as in sowing seed

distinct: 1. different or separate 2. unmistakable; obvious

distinction: 1. honor or excellence 2. something that makes a person or a thing different from the rest

distort: 1. to misrepresent or give false information 2. to change something so that it is no longer the way it originally was

distribute: 1. to give out or hand out 2. to spread something out over a surface 3. to deliver products

distribution: 1. the act of giving something out to people 2. the way in which something is distributed or spread out over an area

diurnal: 1. daily; happening every day 2. done during the daytime or related to daytime

divergent: 1. tending to split and move out in different directions from a single point; diverging 2. be or become different

diverse: 1. possessing various characteristics 2. distinct 3. diversified

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diversity: 1. difference or variety 2. the state of having people from different races and cultures gathered together in one space or organization

divert: 1. to distract 2. to make something move in a different direction or on a different course 3. to use for a different purpose than the original 4. to amuse or entertain

divulge: make (something private, secret, or previously unknown) known to public; disclose; reveal

docile: 1. submissive 2. easy to handle, manage or teach 3. compliant

doctrine: 1. a belief or set of beliefs that are taught and accepted by a religious, political, scientific, or other group; dogma 2. a statement of official government policy, especially in foreign or military affairs

document: 1. to record something on paper or in digital format 2. to provide written evidence

dogged: marked by stubborn determination and persistent in effort to do or get something and continuing to try despite difficulties

dogmatic: an authoritative, arrogant assertion of unproved or unprovable principles as if they are certainly correct and cannot be doubted

domain: 1. territory 2. field of activity or study 3. a set or group of websites that share the same suffix such as .net .org etc.

domestic: 1. related to house, home or family 2. from one's own country

dominant: 1. governing; ruling; exercising one's control 2. more important than similar things 3. commanding

dominate: 1. to be very good at something 2. to command; to have power over 3. to be the most important or largest thing in a group

dormant: 1. sleeping, lying asleep or as if asleep; inactive 2. not active or developing now, but it may become active or develop in the future 3. in a state of rest or inactivity; inoperative

draft: 1. the first draft or copy of something 2. a sketch 3. a rush of air through a building or space

drama: 1. a play that is performed in a theater, on television or on the radio 2. a literary work that deals with a serious subject 3. the art of performing

dramatic: 1. sensational 2. pronounced 3. extremely sudden 4. extreme

droll: 1. strange yet amusing 2. curious in a funny way

dubious: 1. doubtful 2. questionable 3. not totally good or honest 4. undecided

dupe: 1. deceive (an unwary person) by trickery; fool or cheat 2. an easily deceived person

duration: 1. the amount of time that something lasts

dynamic: 1. full of energy; enthusiastic 2. constantly changing 3. relating to energy or physical forces

ebullient: cheerful, lively, and showing excitement; overflowing with enthusiasm or excitement

eccentric: 1. strange 2. unusual 3. unconventional and deviating from what is considered to be "normal" behavior

eclectic: 1. selecting or choosing from various sources, systems, or styles 2. made up of or combining elements from a variety of sources

economic: 1. cheap 2. pertaining to the economy of a country or region 3. related to the system of buying and selling goods and services

edifice: 1. a building or structure that is large and impressive 2. any sort of well-established system

edition: 1. a group of a publications that were published at the same time 2. a specific version or a book or a product

efface: 1. cause to disappear by rubbing out or wiping out; erase 2. cause (something) to fade or disappear

effigy: 1. a sculpture or monument of a person 2. a poorly made dummy that looks like or represents a person and is most often used in protest or ridicule

effrontery: 1. presumptuousness without the ability to see that one's behavior is unacceptable 2. shamelessly bold behavior

effusive: 1. expressing pleasure or gratitude in an unrestrained manner; gushy 2. overflowing 3. exuberant

egalitarian: 1. affirming, promoting, or characterized by the belief that all people should have equal political, social, and economic rights 2. a person who believes in the equality of all people

egregious: 1. something terribly bad 2. something surprisingly negative

element: 1. a specific part of something tangible 2. a characteristic of something abstract or intangible 3. the most basic information about a certain subject

elicit: 1. evoke or draw out (a response, information, etc.) from someone 2. draw out or entice forth; bring to light

eliminate: 1. to get rid of 2. to abolish 3. to remove

eloquent: 1. persuasive in speaking or writing 2. characterized by fluent and persuasive speech 3. movingly or vividly expressive

elucidate: make clear, plain, or easy to understand, especially by explanation or giving more information; clarify; explain

elude: 1. avoid or escape from (a danger, enemy, or pursuer) by quickness, cunning, etc.; evade 2. fail to be understood or remembered by (someone) 3. fail to be achieved by (someone)

elusive: 1. difficult to describe, find, catch, achieve, understand, or remember 2. cleverly or skillfully evasive

emancipate: 1. to liberate someone or something 2. to free someone or something from bondage or control 3. to grant freedom and rights to someone

embroil: 1. cause someone to become deeply involved in an argument, conflict, or difficult situation; draw into a situation; cause to be involved 2. throw into confusion or commotion by contention or discord

emerge: 1. to appear 2. to come into view 3. to become known 4. to come into existence

empathetic: understanding and sharing the feelings of another; showing empathy for others, and recognizing their feelings etc.; compassionate

emphasis: 1. the importance that is specifically placed on something 2. stress

empirical: relying on or derived from observation or experiment rather than theory or pure logic

emulate: try to equal or excel (someone or something you admire), typically by imitation

enable: 1. to make someone able to do something 2. to give someone the tools or resources to do something 3. to allow someone to do something

encompass: 1. form a circle or ring around; encircle; surround 2. include different types of people or things; include comprehensively; contain 3. enclose; envelop

encounter: 1. to find someone or something unexpectedly 2. to stumble across 3. to face

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endemic: 1. very common, prevalent in, or peculiar to a particular locality, region, or people 2. native

endorse: 1. to publicly declare one's support for something 2. to acknowledge a document by signing it

endurance: 1. the ability or power to withstand stress or an unpleasant situation 2. the act of persevering 3. duration

enduring: 1. long-lasting 2. patient 3. durable

energy: 1. the effort or power needed to do something 2. heat, electricity, light or the resources used to produce power

enervate: 1. deprive (someone) of physical, mental, or moral energy or vitality 2. weaken

engage: to occupy the attention

engender: produce, cause, or give rise to (a feeling, situation, or condition)

enhance: intensify, increase, or improve the quality, amount, extent, or strength of something, as in cost, value, attractiveness, effectiveness, etc.

enigma: someone or something that is mysterious, puzzling, and difficult to understand or explain completely

enmity: 1. animosity 2. hatred 3. ill-will towards others 4. a deep-seated dislike of another person

enormous: 1. extremely large in size or quantity 2. massive

ensconce: 1. to make oneself comfortable or safe; to settle 2. to conceal something

ensure: 1. to make sure that something happens or happened 2. to guarantee 3. to secure or make safe

entity: 1. an individual, complete, unit that possesses its own unique characteristics 2. a being

environment: 1. all of the conditions and circumstances that surround a specific person, animal or thing 2. the surroundings

ephemeral: lasting for only a very short time

epiphany: a moment when you suddenly see or understand the reality or essential meaning of something, usually initiated by some simple, homely, or commonplace occurrence or experience

epitome: 1. a person or thing that is a representative or perfect example of a whole class or type 2. a summary of a written work; an abstract

equanimity: the state of being calm, stable, and composed, especially after a shock or disappointment or in a difficult situation

equation: 1. a math problem 2. the act of considering one thing to be the same as another

equip: 1. to give someone the tools or skills necessary to perform a job 2. to dress

equipment: 1. supplies or tools needed to complete a task

equitable: dealing fairly and equally with everyone; just and impartial

equivalent: 1. equal to 2. of the same amount, size, value, meaning

equivocal: 1. not clear and seeming to have two or more possible opposing meanings 2. ambiguous

equivocate: 1. to deliberately speak in a way that confuses people in an attempt to conceal the truth 2. to lie 3. to mislead a person or people

erode: 1. to eat away or wear away something 2. to slowly deteriorate 3. to reduce something

erosion: 1. the gradual corroding or eating away of a subject 2. deterioration

erratic: 1. irregular in movement or behavior 2. not following a regular pattern 3. not doing what is expected

erudite: having, containing, or showing a lot of knowledge or learning gained from reading

eschew: 1. to escape or avoid 2. to stop doing something or give something up 3. to intentionally keep away from something

esoteric: intended for or understood by only a small number of people, especially those with special knowledge

espouse: 1. to marry someone or take them as your spouse 2. to give your support to a belief or an idea 3. to embrace a cause

establish: to set up

estate: 1. a rather large piece of property 2. all of one's possessions at death

estimate: 1. to make a guess or calculate the amount or value of something 2. to judge

estrange: 1. cause (someone) to be no longer friendly or close to another person or group; make unfriendly or hostile; alienate the affections of 2. (as adjective estranged) (of a wife or husband) no longer living with their partner

ethnic: 1. of or relating to a specific group of people who share a common race, heritage, set of customs or traditions

eulogy: a speech or a piece of writing in praise of a person, event, or thing, especially one praising someone who has died

evaluate: 1. to judge 2. to closely examine something before determining its value

evanescent: soon passing away or fading from sight, memory, or existence like vapor or smoke; quickly fading or disappearing; lasting for only a short time

eventual: 1. happening at a time in the future that has not been specified

eventually: 1. in the end 2. at an unspecified time in the future 3. finally

evidence: 1. material that shows someone is innocent or guilty of something 2. material that proves something

evident: clearly and easily seen or understood

evince: 1. to show or demonstrate something in a clear way 2. to reveal something, such as an emotion

evoke: 1. bring (a memory, feeling, image, etc.) into the mind 2. bring out; arouse; call forth

evolution: 1. gradual development or change, especially over long periods of time

evolve: 1. to grow 2. to develop gradually over an extended period of time 3. to go through evolutionary changes

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exacerbate: increase the severity, violence, or bitterness of (disease, pain, annoyance, etc.)

exacting: 1. rigid or severe in demands or requirements; not easily satisfied; rigorous 2. requiring great effort, time, care, patience, or attention

excavate: 1. dig a large hole or channel in the ground, especially with a machine 2. uncover or expose by digging; unearth 3. dig out and remove (earth, soil, etc.) 4. form (a hole, tunnel, etc.) by digging

exceed: 1. to surpass 2. to go beyond 3. to be greater than

exceptionable: 1. debatable; open to or causing objection 2. upsetting 3. causing people to be offended

exclude: 1. to leave someone or something out 2. to eject 3. to deliberately not include 4. to prevent

exculpate: show, declare, or prove that someone is not guilty of a crime or other bad action

execrable: 1. abominable or excessively terrible 2. detestable or easy to hate

exegesis: 1. critical analysis or explanation of a text, especially one from the Bible

exemplar: a person or thing that is worthy of imitation, especially a perfect or typical example or instance

exemplary: 1. extremely good and deserving to be admired and copied; serving as a model or example 2. (of a punishment) serving as a warning or deterrent 3. serving as a sample, instance, type, etc.

exemplify: 1. to serve as a typical example of 2. to use an example to illustrate or clarify 2. to embody

exhibit: 1. to display or show 2. to present to the public 3. to reveal

exorbitant: going far beyond what is reasonable, fair, expected, just, proper, or usual, especially of a price or amount charged

expand: 1. to add details or information 2. to grow larger 3. to cause growth or to make larger

expansion: 1. growth 2. the act or process of getting larger 3. an increase in size or number

expatriate: 1. someone who no longer lives in the country they were born in or the country considered to be their homeland

expedient: helpful or useful in a particular situation and produces an immediate result or solution to a problem, even though possibly improper or immoral

expert: 1. a person who has a great deal of knowledge about or skill in a specific subject

expiate: 1. to accept punishment or pay the price for one's actions 2. to make amends

explicit: fully and clearly expressed or demonstrated, leaving no room for confusion or doubt

exploit: 1. to take advantage of 2. to make use of

exploitation: 1. selfish utilization of someone's work 2. abuse of someone in order to gain advantage

export: 1. to sell or send abroad 2. to introduce or transmit an idea from one country into another

exposition: 1. a show where works of art are displayed for the public to contemplate 2. a clear, detailed, easy to understand explanation 3. a show in which many objects that are for sale are displayed

exposure: 1. the disclosure or revealing of something 2. the state of having no protection from the elements or other harmful agents

expunge: 1. to get rid of or cancel 2. to get rid of something written by erasing it or striking it out

extenuate: (of a factor or situation) lessen or try to lessen the seriousness or extent of (an offense, guilt, etc.) by giving excuses or serving as an excuse

external: 1. from or located out the outside; outer 2. coming from the outside or an outside source 3. peripheral

extol: praise (someone or something) highly, especially in a very enthusiastic way

extract: 1. to remove or pull something out of another source 2. to convince a person to give you something they don't want to give you, often through the use of force

extraneous: 1. not essential 2. not required to do something 3. unrelated; irrelevant

fabricate: 1. to create 2. to manufacture 3. to build

facile: 1. ignoring the true complexities or difficulties of a real situation; superficial 2. (of a person) having a superficial or simplistic knowledge or approach 3. working, acting, or speaking with effortless ease and fluency 4. (of success) easily achieved

facilitate: 1. to help make something happen 2. to assist 3. to make something easier

faction: 1. a small group within a larger group, usually contentious minority within a larger group 2. conflict within an organization or nation; internal dissension

factor: 1. a variable or an element 2. something that influences a result

fallacious: 1. based on false information or ideas; erroneous; illogical 2. deceptive; misleading

fallacy: 1. a mistaken belief that a lot of people think is true but is in fact false 2. (logic) a mistake or failure in reasoning that makes an argument or idea invalid 3. a misleading or unsound argument 4. deceptive, misleading, or false nature

falter: 1. to move or speak in an unsteady, awkward manner 2. to stop doing something, even for just a moment 3. to lose strength

fanatical: 1. too enthusiastic 2. unreasonably zealous about something 3. extreme in one's beliefs or activities

fanaticism: wildly excessive or irrational (especially religious, political, or ideological) beliefs, devotion, dedication, or enthusiasm that make someone behave in an unreasonable way

fathom: 1. a unit of length equal to 6 feet (1.83 meters), a unit for measuring the depth of water 2. understand the reason for (something) thoroughly after much thought

fatuous: 1. something or someone that is silly, foolish or pointless

feasible: 1. achievable 2. capable of being done or accomplished 3. possible 4. likely

feature: 1. a part or aspect of something 2. a quality

federal: 1. related to the central or national government 2. related to the system of federalism, a system in which states or provinces and central governments share power

fee: 1. to pay a tip to someone 2. to pay someone for their services

feign: pretend to feel or be affected by (a feeling, state, or injury)

felicitous: 1. suitable or carefully chosen for some purpose or situation; aptly chosen; appropriate; apt 2. marked by happiness or good fortune; pleasing and fortunate

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fervent: 1. having or showing great warmth or intensity of spirit, feeling, enthusiasm, etc. 2. hot; boiling; burning; glowing

fervid: 1. having or showing feelings, spirit, or enthusiasm, especially to an excessive degree 2. very hot; burning; glowing

fervor: 1. intensity of emotion 2. zeal 3. enthusiasm 4. great heat

fickle: 1. likely to change one's opinion; not constant 2. unstable; frequently changing

file: 1. to cut away using a file 2. to put in order; to arrange 3. to submit or send a document 4. to walk in a line

final: 1. last; concluding 2. ultimate 3. coming at the end

finance: 1. money that is used to pay for a large and expensive project 2. the money that a person, company or nation has 3. the management of money

financial: 1. related to money or finance

finesse: 1. impressive delicacy, skill, or subtlety in action, performance, skill, discrimination, taste, etc. 2. skillful, subtle handling or manipulating of people or difficult situations; tactful, diplomatic maneuvering; adroit and artful management

finite: 1. limited 2. measurable 3. having an end

fitful: 1. restless or sporadic 2. marked by frequent stops or pauses 3. prone to change

flagrant: 1. (of a bad action, situation, person, etc.) shockingly noticeable or evident; obviously offensive; glaringly bad; notorious; outrageous 2. notorious; scandalous

flamboyant: 1. excessively decorated 2. ornate 3. brightly colored and showy, often to draw attention to someone or something

flaunt: 1. to show something, like a personal quality, wanting to get admiration from others 2. to flaunt something

fledgling: 1. a young bird just fledged 2. a young, inexperienced, or underdeveloped person or organization

flexibility: 1. the ability or willingness to make changes 2. easily bent 3. adaptability

flexible: 1. pliable; capable of being manipulated 2. able to change or be modified 3. able to be bent

flippant: showing a lack of proper respect or seriousness about a serious subject or situation, in an attempt to be funny or to appear clever, especially when this annoys other people

florid: 1. flushed with red or pink 2. highly decorated

flounder: stagger or struggle helplessly or clumsily to move or regain one's balance, as in deep mud or snow

flout: 1. to scorn something 2. to reject 3. to consciously refuse to comply with a rule or law

fluctuate: 1. to constantly undergo changes 2. to undulate 3. to shift back and forth; to rise and fall

focus: 1. the center point of something 2. the center of attention 3. the main point

folly: 1. a lack of good sense, understanding, or foresight; foolishness 2. a foolish action, practice, idea, etc. 3. any foolish and useless but expensive undertaking

foolhardy: bold or daring in a foolish way; foolishly ignoring obvious dangers; rash; reckless

forbearance: the quality of being polite, calm, and patient in difficult situations or in the face of provocation; self-control; patient restraint and tolerance

forensic: 1. related to the use of science in the judicial system and in investigations of crimes 2. used in court or in an argument; rhetorical

forlorn: 1. pitifully sad and lonely; unhappy and neglected; abandoned or left behind 2. nearly hopeless; desperate

format: 1. to arrange a document in a specific way 2. to prepare a computer disk to save specific files

formula: 1. a fixed or standard way of doing something 2. mathematical symbols that express a rule or a fact

forsake: 1. to desert or abandon someone who needs you 2. to give up something special or important

forthcoming: 1. upcoming; approaching 2. appearing shortly 3. helpful; collaborative

fortitude: mental and emotional strength in facing or enduring pain, difficulty, adversity, misfortune, danger, or temptation with courage

fortuitous: 1. happening by accident or chance rather than intention, especially in a way that is lucky or convenient 2. lucky; fortunate

foster: 1. promote the growth or development of (something, especially something desirable and over a period of time) 2. bring up with care, raise, or rear a child, usually for a limited time, without being the child's legal parent

foundation: 1. the base on which something is built 2. an organization that deals with social issues or projects 3. the underlying principle or basis

fractious: 1. irritable and quarrelsome 2. difficult to control; unruly

framework: 1. the basic structure for something 2. something's skeleton 3. a set of rules around which something is done

fraudulent: 1. dishonest and illegal; based on fraud or deception; using fraud; tricky; deceitful; dishonest 2. done or obtained by deception, especially criminal deception

fraught: filled, charged, or loaded (with), especially unpleasant or undesirable things such as problems, difficulties, or things that are confusing

frivolous: 1. not serious 2. unimportant 3. carefree in nature and superficial 4. trivial

frugal: 1. sparing or economical in use or expenditure; not wasteful; not spending freely or unnecessarily 2. simple, cheap, and not very big

function: 1. a duty or an activity that one must perform 2. a formal event 3. a purpose

fund: 1. money saved or collected that is destined for a specific purpose 2. a large supply of something 3. capital

fundamental: 1. essential 2. of great importance 3. basic

furthermore: 1. in addition 2. moreover 3. besides 4. additionally

furtive: done quietly, quickly and secretly to avoid being noticed

futile: 1. incapable of producing any result; unsuccessful, or useless; ineffective 2. of no importance; worthless

gallant: 1. (of a person or their behavior) brave and noble; high-spirited and daring 2. (of a man) courteously attentive especially to women; chivalrous; flirtatious 3. showy, colorful, or stylish, as in dress or manner; splendid; magnificent; well-dressed

gargantuan: very large in size or amount; of a tremendous size, volume, or degree; huge; enormous; gigantic

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garish: too bright or colorful (clothes or decoration) in an ugly way; tastelessly colorful, showy, or elaborate

garner: 1. to gather or to collect something, especially through great effort 2. to acquire or to amass

garrulous: talking much or too much, especially about things that are not important

gaunt: 1. extremely thin due to illness or hunger 2. empty or barren 3. dreary

gender: 1. one's sex or sexual identity 2. all members of a specific sex

generate: 1. to create or bring about 2. to produce 3. to produce energy, like electricity

generation: 1. a group of people in a society or in a family that were born in the same general age 2. a period of around thirty years in which people are born, grow up, and have babies of their own

genial: 1. cheerful, friendly, and sympathetic; amiable 2. (of air or climate) pleasantly mild and warm; favorable for life, growth, or comfort

genre: 1. a category or class 2. a specific style used in works of art that share common features

germane: 1. relevant to the argument or subject being discussed 2. fitting 3. related to a subject

germinate: 1. sprout or cause to sprout, as from a seed, spore, bulb, or bud 2. start developing or growing 3. come into existence; begin

glacial: 1. icy or unfriendly 2. related to a glacier 3. slow moving 4. extraordinarily cold

global: 1. world-wide 2. found around the world 3. comprehensive

glutton: 1. a person who eats and drinks excessively or voraciously 2. a person with a great desire, fondness, or capacity for something

goad: 1. to provoke someone 2. to urge someone on 3. to tease or incite a person or an animal

goal: 1. an aim, target or objective 2. the area where players must put a ball or puck in order to receive points in various sporting events

gossamer: 1. a fine, filmy cobweb often seen floating in the air or caught on bushes or grass 2. (something) delicate, light, delicate or flimsy

grade: 1. a level or rank 2. a number or letter that indicates the quality of something

grant: 1. to give something to someone 2. to allow someone to have something 3. to bestow

gratis: 1. free 2. without charge or price

gratuitous: 1. unearned; not called for 2. not necessary 3. with no cause 4. free

gravity: 1. the force that pulls matter toward a center of attraction; the force that pulls matter to the ground 2. seriousness or solemnity

gregarious: 1. an extremely sociable person 2. an animal that tends to live in flocks or herds

guarantee: 1. the promise that something will happen or that something is true 2. an assurance

guffaw: 1. a hearty, unrestrained, and loud burst of laughter

guile: clever and usually dishonest methods to achieve something or to make others do what you want

gullible: 1. easily tricked because one is too trusting 2. quick to believe something, even if it's not true 3. naive

hackneyed: 1. (of a phrase, idea, fashion, etc.) have been said or used so often that they no longer seem interesting or original and have become boring and not interesting 2. not fresh or original

hamper: slow or prevent the free movement, progress, or action of (someone or something); hold back; hinder; impede

hapless: unlucky and usually unhappy

harangue: 1. a long, angry and vociferous speech, often made with the intention of persuading someone 2. an aggressive and highly opinionated piece of writing

hardy: 1. capable of enduring extreme conditions or difficult situations; robust 2. bold or daring; courageous 3. brazenly daring; audacious 4. (of plants) able to survive outside during winter without protection from the weather

hasten: 1. make something happen sooner or more quickly; speed up; accelerate 2. move or act quickly; hurry 3. cause to hurry

haughty: having or showing irrational pride in oneself and irrational disdain for others

headlong: 1. with the head leading 2. very quickly and without taking time to think about your actions

hedonist: a person who believes that pleasure or happiness is the most important goal in life; a pleasure-seeker

heed: 1. to listen to or pay attention, especially when referring to advice or warnings 2. to consider or take notice of

hegemony: 1. dominance, influence or control over others, especially in reference to political power

hence: 1. therefore 2. for this reason 3. from this time 4. from this place

heresy: 1. a belief or opinion that is against the orthodox doctrines of a particular (especially Christian) religion and is considered wrong 2. any belief or theory (in politics, philosophy, science, etc.) that is opposed to established beliefs, customs, etc.

hiatus: 1. a pause in a specific event or activity 2. an interruption or space where something is missing 3. a gap or a break

hierarchy: 1. the order of people based on their rank or status 2. a system where people or things are ranked based on their status

highlight: 1. to stress something 2. to make something appear more important 3. to emphasize

hinder: 1. to limit someone's possibilities or the ability to do something 2. to hamper or impede 3. to slow something down

histrionic: 1. of or relating to actors, acting, or the theater 2. excessively theatrical, dramatic, or emotional in character or style; affected

hoary: 1. white, gray, or grayish-white in color 2. ancient 3. extremely old

homogeneous: of the same or similar nature or kind

hone: 1. to sharpen something or make it sharper than it already is 2. to improve a skill 3. to perfect

hubris: excessive pride or self-confidence that offends people; arrogance resulting from excessive pride or from passion

hyperbole: 1. a figure of speech in which the speaker or writer exaggerates for emphasis 2. an exaggerated statement that is not intended to be taken literally

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hypothesis: an unproved theory, proposition, supposition, etc. that is made on the basis of limited evidence and not proven but that leads to further study, discussion, or investigation, etc.

iconoclast: 1. a person who attacks widely accepted ideas, beliefs, traditional institutions, etc. 2. a person who destroys sacred images used in religious worship or opposes to the religious use of images

identical: 1. exactly alike 2. the same as something else 3. extraordinarily similar

identify: 1. to discover 2. to equate 3. to recognize a person or a problem

ideology: 1. a set of ideas which influence or govern a person or a society

idiosyncrasy: 1. a strange or unusual habit, way of behaving, or feature that is characteristic of a person, especially that is different from most people 2. an unusual feature or characteristic of something 3. an unusual individual reaction to food or a drug

idyllic: 1. extremely pleasant, beautiful, or peaceful; extremely happy, without any problems 2. pastoral or picturesque

ignominy: public shame or embarrassment where you lose other people's respect; shame and dishonor; infamy

ignorant: 1. not aware 2. possessing little knowledge or training 3. uneducated; uninformed

illuminate: 1. to make something brighter; to brighten 2. to explain something in a way that makes it understandable; to instruct

illustrate: 1. to show something or explain, especially by giving examples 2. to draw pictures that are to be used in a book or other written document 3. to represent

image: 1. a picture or a visual representation of something 2. a mental picture of something

immigration: 1. the act of moving into a new country in order to live there

immutable: 1. not able to be changed 2. always the same

impact: 1. a collision; the moment when two or more bodies hit 2. the effect that an event has on a person; an influence

impartial: 1. fair and unbiased 2. refraining from supporting a specific side in an argument 3. not partial

impasse: 1. a situation that has no solution or escape, especially because the people involved cannot agree; a deadlock or a stalemate 2. a road or passage having no exit; a blind alley

impassive: 1. calm and not showing emotion 2. unaffected 3. expressionless and without feeling

impeccable: 1. without fault 2. perfect 3. flawless 4. not capable of sin

impecunious: having little or no money

imperious: proud and unplesant attitude of assuming power or authority without justification and expecting other people to obey

impertinent: 1. rude and not demonstrating the amount of respect that is customary for the situation at hand

impervious: 1. (scientific) impenetrable 2. incapable of being affected or harmed

impetuous: 1. acting or done quickly, without considering the results of your actions; controlled by emotion rather than thought 2. moving with great force or violence; rushing; furious

implacable: 1. someone with strong ideas which are impossible to change 2. unable to appease

implement: 1. to put something in force or into effect 2. to carry out

implicate: 1. to demonstrate, imply or show that a person is involved in something, such as a crime

implication: something implied or suggested without saying it directly

implicit: 1. not explicitly said or explained; implied 2. suggested

imply: 1. express or indicate (something) indirectly 2. indicate or suggest without saying or showing

impose: 1. to force people to comply with a rule or to accept something 2. to demand

impromptu: 1. done without any planning 2. unrehearsed 3. offhand

impudent: 1. insolent 2. rude towards others 3. disrespectful toward someone that should receive respect

impute: say or suggest that someone or something has a specific quality, especially a bad one, or is guilty of (something, especially something undesirable)

incentive: 1. something that motivates people to do something or take action 2. a reward or the threat of punishment that inspires people to act

incessant: 1. unending 2. never stopping or pausing 3. continuing constantly without interruptions of any sort

inchoate: not completely formed or developed yet; disorganized; incomplete

incidence: 1. the rate or frequency at which something happens 2. occurrence

incipient: 1. just starting 2. in the beginning stages 3. beginning to appear

incisive: 1. sharp 2. penetrating 3. clearly expressed 4. direct

inclination: 1. a tendency to support something or like something; a preference 2. a slope or angle

incline: 1. to be in favor of something or have a preference 2. to bend or slant 3. to slope

income: 1. money that one receives in exchange for one's work or smart investing 2. revenue 3. a company's profits

incompatible: 1. unable to exist together in harmony or agreement because of basic differences 2. not consistent or able to coexist with (another)

incongruity: 1. the condition, quality, or fact of being unusual or different to other things which happen or exist in the same situation; incompatibility; unsuitableness; dissimilarity; inconsistency 2. disagreement of parts; lack of symmetry or of harmony

incongruous: 1. inappropriate or not considered to be normal 2. incompatible or inconsistent with the rest of things in its group or time

inconsequential: 1. of little or no importance; insignificant; trivial 2. inconsequent; illogical 3. irrelevant

incontrovertible: 1. very clear and obviously true; undeniable

incorporate: 1. to include something into a larger unit or group 2. to combine

incorrigible: (of a person or their tendencies) not able to be corrected, changed, improved, or reformed, especially because firmly established

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incredulous: 1. unwilling or unable to believe something, and usually showing this; doubting; skeptical 2. showing doubt or disbelief 3. incredible; not easy to be believed

incriminate: 1. make someone appear guilty, especially of a crime 2. accuse of or present proof of a crime or other wrongful act

indefatigable: 1. untiring and inexhaustible 2. not yielding to fatigue despite persisting in labor or effort for a long time

indelible: 1. impossible to remove or forget 2. producing marks that cannot be erased or removed 3. permanent

index: 1. an alphabetical list showing all that is included in a book or a larger document 2. an alphabetical list of the documents in a collection 3. an indication

indicate: 1. to show 2. to be a sign of 3. to signal 4. to suggest

indifferent: 1. not caring about something; apathetic or indifferent 2. impartial 3. unremarkable or average

indigenous: existing, growing, or produced naturally in a particular place or climate; native

indignant: feeling or showing anger or annoyance at unfair, mean, or ungrateful action or treatment

indiscriminate: 1. affecting or harming many people or things without considering who or what you harm or damage 2. done without choosing or judging carefully; not discriminating 3. random; haphazard

individual: 1. a single human being 2. a person

indolent: 1. disliking or avoiding work; idle; lazy 2. causing little or no pain 3. slow to heal, grow, or develop; inactive

indomitable: very determined and impossible to defeat, discourage, or subdue; unyielding; unconquerable

induce: 1. persuade or influence someone to do something 2. bring about, produce, or cause 3. draw (a general rule or conclusion) by inductive reasoning

inept: 1. not effective 2. unfit or wrong in an inappropriate way 3. awkward or clumsy

inert: 1. unable to move or act 2. moving or acting very slowly 3. not energetic or interesting

inertia: 1. lack of activity 2. the fact that matter moves in the same direction unless acted upon by another force

inevitable: 1. impossible to avoid, evade, escape, or prevent 2. sure to happen

inevitably: 1. in a way that isn't preventable 2. not able to be avoided

inexorable: 1. incapable of being altered, swayed or stopped 2. not capable of being persuaded

infallible: 1. never failing 2. unable to make a mistake 3. trustworthy or totally sure 4. incapable of being wrong

infamous: 1. famous for a bad reason 2. notorious 3. having a terrible reputation

infer: form an opinion or guess that something is true by reasoning, especially based on known facts, evidence, or premises

infrastructure: 1. the underlying features of something; framework 2. a country's basic systems, such as power, water or transportation

ingenious: clever, resourceful, original, and inventive

ingenuous: innocent and unsuspecting, artless, innocent, naive, candid or openly straightforward, especially because they have not had much experience of life

inherent: existing in someone or something as a natural and inseparable element, quality, right, or attribute

inhibit: 1. prevent someone from doing what he or she wants to do 2. prevent or slow down the activity, growth or occurrence of (something) 3. restrain, hinder, arrest, or check (an action, impulse, etc.)

inimical: 1. harmful or injurious 2. unkind or hostile towards others

initial: 1. first 2. occurring at the beginning of something 3. incipient

initiate: 1. to begin 2. to introduce a person to into a subject or knowledge; to teach someone 3. to formally admit someone into a group

injury: 1. physical harm caused by violence or an accident

innate: 1. a quality or ability existing in one from birth 2. an essential characteristic existing as part of the basic nature

innocuous: 1. that does not injure or harm 2. not likely to bother or offend anyone 3. not likely to arouse strong feelings or hostility

innovation: 1. the use of something new; a change to a particular process

innuendo: an indirect or subtle hint, remark, gesture, or reference, especially of a disparaging or a derogatory nature

insatiable: 1. not able to be satisfied 2. never satisfied 3. very greedy

inscrutable: (especially of a person or their expression) difficult or impossible to understand or interpret; enigmatic; mysterious

insert: 1. to put or place something in something else 2. to add something

insidious: 1. seemingly harmless yet, in truth, damaging and harmful 2. slowly acting and causing harm

insight: 1. understanding of a specific theme or topic 2. the ability to clearly understand a difficult or complicated situation or topic

insipid: 1. without flavor; tasteless 2. not interesting or exciting; dull; boring

inspect: 1. to carefully examine something, especially in search of problems or flaws 2. to make an official visit to ensure that rules are being followed or complied with

inspection: 1. the act of examining something by an official or a person who has been specially trained 2. an official or formal review

instance: 1. an occurrence 2. an example used to demonstrate something

instigate: 1. cause something to happen or begin, especially an official process 2. urge, provoke, or incite to some action, especially something bad

institute: 1. an organization that promotes education or art 2. an organization that carries out research 3. an organization with a specific purpose

instruct: 1. to teach someone 2. to show someone how to do something 3. to direct or give orders

insurgent: 1. rebellious 2. fighting against leadership, authority, government or political rule

integral: 1. fundamental; essential 2. of the utmost importance 3. necessary

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integrate: 1. to add something to a unit to make it whole 2. to combine two or more things 3. to join; to unify

integrity: 1. the quality of being honest and having strong moral principles 2. the quality or state of being whole and undivided 3. the quality or state of being unimpaired; soundness

intelligence: 1. the ability to learn or to acquire knowledge or skills 2. classified or secret information about an organization or a country

intend: plan

intense: 1. acute 2. very strong; extreme 3. profound

interact: 1. to communicate with and react to another human 2. to act on

interaction: 1. the act of communicating and acting with other individuals

intermediate: 1. in the middle of two things, places, etc. 2. between two levels; between basic and advanced

interminable: 1. continual 2. without end 3. tedious

intermittent: 1. happening at irregular intervals 2. not steady 3. stopping and starting

internal: 1. found or existing within certain limits 2. inner 3. interior

interpretation: 1. explanation 2. definition 3. the act of orally translating from one language to another

interval: 1. the space or spaces between things 2. the period of time between two things 3. a pause

intervene: 1. to get involved or become involved in a situation in order to change its suspected outcome 2. to interrupt 3. to be situated between two things

intervention: 1. the act of becoming involved in something

intransigent: unwilling or refusing to change your opinions or behavior with no good reason

intrepid: very bold or brave and showing no fear of dangerous situations; fearless

intrinsic: 1. inherent 2. relating to the basic nature of something 3. fundamental

inundate: overwhelm (someone or something) by sending or providing with a large amount of things at the same time

invective: 1. severe or abusive language used to blame, criticize or insult

investigate: 1. to thoroughly examine something 2. to explore a topic in order to learn the truth about it 3. to try to get information about something

investigation: 1. research or inquiry 2. the act of trying to find information about something in order to better understand it

inveterate: 1. established or habitual 2. deep-rooted 3. settled in a habit and unlikely to change

invidious: 1. arousing anger or envy in others 2. causing animosity due to unfairness 2. offensive

invoke: 1. request blessing, help, inspiration, support, etc. from someone, especially God, a god, a saint, etc. 2. ask for; request earnestly 3. make someone have a particular feeling or remember something

involve: 1. to engage 2. to include something as necessary 3. to cause a person to participate or get involved

irascible: becoming angry very easily

irate: feeling or showing extreme anger; very angry; enraged

ire: 1. intense anger 2. wrath 3. rage

irksome: 1. annoying and tedious 2. irritating

ironic: 1. using words that literally mean the opposite of what the speaker or writer wants to say, especially when one wants to express humor

irony: a method of humorous or subtly sarcastic expression in which the intended meaning of the words is different from and often opposite to their literal meaning

irreverent: having or showing a lack of seriousness or respect for official, important, or holy things that are generally taken seriously

irrevocable: 1. unable to be taken away 2. unable to be changed 3. final

isolate: 1. to seclude someone or something 2. to place something in quarantine 3. to separate something or someone

isolated: 1. separated from others 2. occurring just one time

issue: topic

item: 1. a single object 2. a piece of news 3. a subject to be discussed or dealt with

itinerant: 1. moving from place to place, especially for work reasons 2. traveling

jargon: 1. special vocabulary or expressions that are difficult to understand and are exclusively used by a certain group of professionals 2. gibberish

journal: 1. a newspaper or magazine 2. a magazine that contains articles about a specific subject 3. a written record of the day 4. a logbook

jovial: 1. (of a person ) cheerful, friendly, and good-humored 2. (of a situation ) enjoyable because of being friendly and pleasant

jubilant: 1. thrilled 2. feeling and expressing great joy 3. expressing extreme happiness, often due to a victory or success

judicious: having, applying, or showing reason and good judgment or sense in making decisions

justification: 1. the reason behind something; something that explains or justifies something else

justify: 1. to explain or defend one's position or reasoning 2. to adjust one's text so that the right and left edges of a document are equal 3. to prove something to be correct

juxtaposition: 1. the act of placing items side-by-side 2. the act of placing items close together, often to incite comparison

kindle: 1. to build or light a fire 2. to make something burn; to ignite 3. to arouse an emotion or cause a feeling 4. to stir up

label: 1. a piece of material on an object that gives information about the object 2. a name or phrase assigned to a person to classify them, often in an unfair manner 3. a company that produces music

labour: 1. work or physical exertion 2. the process of giving birth to a baby 3. workers, when considered collectively

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labyrinth: 1. something that is perplexing or confusing 2. a network of paths or passages that is considered to be confusing or difficult to navigate

lachrymose: 1. depressed; sad 2. tending to cry easily or frequently 3. causing tears

laconic: using very few words in speech, writing, or expression; terse; concise

laggard: someone or something that is very slow or late in doing things and always falling behind others

lampoon: 1. to criticize a person or a group through a humorous piece of writing or art

languid: 1. lacking enthusiasm, energy, or strength; without interest or spirit 2. (of a period of time) relaxed and pleasant 3. weak or faint from illness or fatigue 4. slow in progress; tardy

languish: 1. to become weaker 2. to suffer through a difficult, unwanted situation over an extended period of time 3. to long for something or someone 4. to be ignored or neglected

larceny: 1. theft 2. the act of taking someone else's property and acting as if it is now yours

latent: exists but is not active, obvious, completely developed, or cannot be seen

laud: praise someone or something highly

lavish: 1. extravagant or expensive 2. liberal in one's spending or giving of money 3. impressive 4. generous 5. sumptuous

lax: 1. not as strict or strong 2. loose 3. not careful

layer: 1. different tiers that make something up 2. a thin sheet of a certain substance 3. a substance that is above or under another substance

lecture: 1. a speech or lesson about a specific subject 2. a speech that is open to to the public 3. a long and serious scolding

legal: 1. allowed or permitted by law 2. related or connected to law

legend: 1. the part of a map or a chart where each symbol or color are explained 2. a story that has been told over generations that may or may not be true; myth

legislate: 1. to create and pass laws

legislation: 1. laws 2. the act of lawmaking

lethargic: 1. sluggish or drowsy; tired or slightly tired 2. apathetic

levity: 1. lack of seriousness, especially when strictness is required or appropriate 2. frivolity 3. fickleness

levy: 1. to impose a tax, fee or fine on 2. to officially request the payment of a tax, fee or fine

liberal: 1. tolerant or open-minded 2. in favor of personal rights and freedoms 3. in favor of reform and progressive policies 4. generous

licentious: 1. amoral or lascivious 2. showing little to no respect for laws or social norms 3. not restrained

likewise: 1. similarly 2. moreover 3. in addition

link: 1. to connect two or more things 2. to relate things 3. to join

locate: 1. to find 2. to situate 3. to be in a certain place 4. to discover the exact position

location: 1. the place where someone or something can be found 2. place

lofty: 1. elevated; high 2. arrogant; thinking that one is better or more important than others 3. tall

logic: 1. a specific or formal way of thinking 2. the scientific study of the processes used when humans reason or think

longevity: 1. long life 2. the length or duration of life 3. long existence or service

loquacious: tending to talk a lot or too much

lucid: 1. very clear and easy to understand 2. clear; transparent 3. able to think clearly

lucrative: producing a lot of wealth or profit; profitable

ludicrous: 1. absurd 2. laughable; deserving of or causing laughter 3. ridiculous

lugubrious: very sad, mournful, dismal, or gloomy, especially in a way that seems exaggerated, ridiculous, or insincere way

lull: 1. cause to sleep, rest, or calm, typically with soothing sounds or movements 2. cause someone feel secure, relaxed, or confident instead of careful and alert, especially by deception 3. a temporary calm, quiet, or stillness, as in a storm 4. become calm

lurid: 1. causing shock or horror, especially because involving violence, sex, or immoral activity; gruesome 2. glowing with an unnatural glare and in an ugly way

luxuriant: 1. (of vegetation) abundant or lush in growth; having heavy and thick growth 2. fertile; fruitful; productive 3. richly abundant, profuse, or superabundant 4. marked by or displaying luxury; luxurious

lynch: 1. to kill someone without a fair trial in court because they allegedly committed some sort of crime

magnanimity: generosity

maintenance: 1. financial support given from one ex-spouse to another 2. upkeep 3. the act of maintaining

major: 1. quite important 2. serious 3. large 4. more important

maladroit: 1. awkward 2. clumsy 3. inept 4. unskilled

malady: 1. an illness, disease or ailment 2. a major problem

malediction: 1. a curse or the act of saying a curse 2. speaking in a defamatory or evil way

malevolent: causing or wanting to cause harm or evil to another or others; malicious; evil

malleable: 1. (of a metal or other material) able to be hammered, pounded, or pressed into various shapes without breaking or cracking 2. easily influenced, trained, or controlled; adaptable

mallet: 1. a hammer or a hammer-like tool 2. a stick with a spherical padded head that is used to play specific percussion instruments 3. a long-handled wooden hammer used to play croquet

manipulate: 1. to change or modify, especially to suit one's purposes 2. to handle 3. to influence or control someone

manual: 1. a guide book that tells one how to operate or use something 2. an instruction book

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margin: 1. a border or edge 2. the difference between the cost of production of a good and the amount at which it is sold

marginal: 1. not important 2. quite small 3. on the margin or border

mature: 1. to grow old 2. to develop 3. to ripen

maudlin: 1. self-pityingly or tearfully sentimental, especially in a foolish or annoying way 2. foolishly tearful or sentimental, especially when you are drunk

maverick: a person who refuses to follow the customs or rules of or resists adherence to a group

maxim: 1. a general truth that someone lives by 2. a rule of conduct 3. a proverb

maximise: 1. to make as large as possible 2. to make the most of something 3. to use something in a way that allows one to get the best possible result

maximum: 1. the highest possible amount or largest quantity

meager: 1. meek or feeble 2. inadequate 3. deficient in quantity; less than is needed or necessary

meander: 1. to walk slowly and without purpose or without direction 2. to follow a winding path 3. to randomly wander

mechanism: 1. a machine or device 2. the working parts of a machine

media: 1. companies or institutions that report the news through the television, radio, press, internet, etc. 2. mass communication when considered as a whole

mediate: 1. to settle disputes through negotiation 2. to be an intermediary 3. to work with opposing sides to reach an agreement

medium: 1. a way of expressing something, such as photography or print 2. something in a middle position 3. surrounding objects; environment

mental: 1. related to or involving the mind 2. existing in the mind

mercenary: 1. working or acting only for money or other reward 2. a professional soldier hired to serve in a foreign army, guerrilla organization, etc.

mercurial: 1. changing mood or opinion unexpectedly, suddenly, and often 2. volatile; erratic; unstable 3. lively and continuously active

merge: 1. to put two or more things together; to unite; to combine

method: 1. a way of doing something 2. an approach 3. a technique

meticulous: 1. extremely concerned with details 2. thorough and precise 3. finicky

mettle: 1. resilience; stamina 2. fortitude and courage 3. the ability to deal with situations that are considered difficult 4. temperament

migrate: 1. to move from one region or country to another

migration: 1. the movement of people or animals from one reason to another, based on a variety of different reasons

milieu: 1. setting 2. environment 3. the conditions and people that create a person's environment

military: 1. related to soldiers, the army, or armed conflict 2. done or made by soldiers

minimal: 1. the least or fewest possible 2. extremely small 3. negligible

minimise: 1. to make something smaller 2. to reduce as much as possible in amount or degree 3. to make something seem less important

minimum: 1. the smallest or least amount of something possible 2. the smallest size possible

ministry: 1. a government department that is in charge of a specific task or subject 2. the job of being a preacher or a priest

minor: 1. of little importance 2. small or secondary 3. not valuable 4. not serious

minute: extremely small

misanthrope: a person who hates or distrusts all people and avoids involvement with human society

miserly: 1. a person who is reluctant or unhappy to spend money 2. a person who is not charitable or thoughtful with others

misnomer: a name, term, designation, or description that is incorrect or unsuitable for a person or thing

mitigate: make something less severe, serious, painful, harmful, unpleasant, or bad

mode: 1. a fashion 2. a way of doing something or performing a task

modicum: 1. a limited amount of something 2. a small object 3. a reduced quantity

modify: 1. to make changes to something 2. to adjust or alter

monitor: 1. to watch someone or something 2. to check on something or someone in order to detect changes 3. to supervise

monotonous: 1. repetitive and boring 2. lacking variety 3. dull 4. wearisome

moribund: 1. near death 2. near extinction or obsoleteness 3. stagnant or not active

morose: 1. austere and churlish 2. ill-tempered 3. bleak or dreary in nature 4. showing a gloomy attitude

motivation: 1. the enthusiasm, interest or reason for doing something

motive: 1. one of the reasons behind someone's behavior 2. something that inspires someone to behave in a certain way 3. a motif

motley: 1. a heterogeneous group 2. polychromatic 3. characterized by variety

multifarious: 1. characterized by variety 2. largely diverse 3. composed of a wide variety of parts or elements

mundane: 1. ordinary and not interesting or exciting 2. relating to the world and practical matters instead of heavenly or spiritual ones; worldly; earthly

munificent: 1. very generous 2. liberal with one's giving of money 3. lavish

mutual: 1. shared between two or more parties 2. held in common

myriad: 1. a large number, often one that is too large to count 2. a great deal of people or things

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nadir: 1. the point opposite the zenith on a sphere, directly below the observer 2. the lowest, worst point in a situation

nascent: 1. emerging or beginning to exist 2. recently formed or started 3. developing

navigable: 1. safe, wide, and deep enough to allow the passage or transit of ships 2. able to be directed or steered

negate: 1. to deny something or say something isn't true 2. to cancel something out; to nullify

negative: 1. pessimistic 2. harmful or bad 3. expressing or showing "no" 4. expressing disapproval

nettle: 1. to bother or annoy 2. to provoke 3. to irritate or sting as if with nettles

network: 1. a large system of smaller interconnected parts 2. a system of interconnected people or things 3. a group of people who are related in some way

neutral: 1. impartial 2. not supporting either side involved in a conflict

nevertheless: 1. in spite of 2. notwithstanding 3. however

noisome: 1. very unpleasant, offensive or disgusting, as an odor 2. harmful, dangerous, or injurious, especially to health

nomadic: 1. constantly moving from place to place without a fixed pattern 2. itinerant 3. pertaining to a wandering tribe

nominal: 1. insignificant 2. in name, but not in practice 3. very small

nonchalance: 1. indifference 2. a lack of concern 3. composure; casualness

nonchalant: coolly unconcerned, indifferent, or unexcited; relaxed, calm, and not worried about anything; not displaying anxiety, interest, or enthusiasm

nonentity: 1. something that doesn't exist 2. something imaginary 3. someone or something that is not important

nonetheless: 1. nevertheless 2. however

norm: 1. a rule or standard 2. a pattern or something that is expected 3. a model

nostalgia: 1. homesickness; a longing for one's home or hometown 2. a feeling of sadness and pleasure when thinking about events or things from the past; sentimentality

notion: 1. an idea, belief or opinion about something

notwithstanding: 1. in spite of 2. nevertheless 3. although

novel: 1. new 2. different from anything that has previously existed 3. surprisingly new or unusual

novice: a person who is new and not experienced in a job or situation

noxious: 1. detrimental to living beings 2. something that is dangerous for one's physical health

nuance: a small variation in meaning, tone or feeling

nuclear: 1. related to or employing nuclear weapons or energy 2. related to the nucleus of an atom

nullify: 1. to void something, especially a legal agreement or decision 2. to make something useless or null

obdurate: 1. stubbornly refusing to do what other people want 2. stubbornly refusing to change your opinions, plans, or the way you do something despite what anyone else says, in a way that does not seem reasonable

obfuscate: 1. to make something more difficult to understand, often intentionally 2. to darken or make opaque 3. to make something obscure or confusing

objective: 1. fair and impartial 2. unbiased 3. based on facts and not affected by feelings 4. actual

oblique: 1. possessing a slanting or sloping angle or direction; inclined 2. not expressing something in a clear or direct manner

obliterate: 1. to totally destroy 2. to make something disappear completely 3. to get rid of, erase or cover completely

oblivious: 1. unaware or not conscious about something happening at that moment 2. forgetful 3. inattentive

obscure: 1. not famous or well-known 2. difficult to see 3. faint; vague 4. unnoticeable 5. mysterious

obsequious: 1. overly attentive or eager to flatter others 2. excessive obedience or flattery, often in order to gain favors from people of influence

obsession: 1. a person, object or idea that someone constantly thinks about 2. the state of being completely obsessed with something

obsolete: 1. outdated or old-fashioned 2. no longer in use 3. antiquated

obstinate: 1. unreasonably stubborn and unwilling to change one's opinion or attitude 2. troublesome to deal with, change or remove

obstreperous: 1. noisy and unruly, often in an aggressive way 2. resistant to authority; defiant

obtain: 1. to get 2. to acquire 3. to procure

obtuse: annoyingly insensitive or slow to understand explanations or situations quickly

obviate: anticipate and prevent or remove (a need, problem, difficulty, disadvantage, etc.) by effective measures so that action to deal with it becomes unnecessary

obvious: 1. clear 2. easy to see 3. apparent 4. evident

occupy: 1. to be inside something 2. to dwell in 3. to fill 4. to keep someone busy

occur: 1. to take place 2. to happen 3. to exist

odd: 1. unable to be divided by two 2. strange or uncommon 3. unexpected

odious: 1. something that causes strong dislike or hatred 2. repulsive or vile

officious: someone who is overly eager to offer their unsolicited opinion, advice or services; overbearing

offset: 1. to balance or counteract something 2. to compensate

olfactory: 1. related to one's sense of smell

ominous: 1. threatening or suggestive that something bad is going to occur 2. inauspicious

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omnipotent: 1. possessing infinite power 2. having an enormous influence 3. all-powerful

omniscient: 1. possessing unlimited knowledge 2. knowing, or seemingly knowing, everything

ongoing: 1. continuing 2. happening at the present time 3. in progress

onus: 1. a burden or a difficult task 2. an obligation 3. responsibility

opaque: 1. not letting light pass through; not transparent or translucent 2. difficult to understand or explain

option: 1. the ability or right to choose 2. a choice or something that can be chosen

opulent: 1. expensive and luxurious 2. very wealthy, rich, or affluent 3. richly supplied; abundant or plentiful

ordain: 1. to formally make or declare someone a preacher, priest or other religious leader 2. to formally declare or order 3. to establish by law or other rules

orient: 1. to adapt something 2. to align something based on a specific point or direction 3. to direct towards a goal

orientation: 1. the act of finding or determining one's position 2. a person or group's interests or beliefs 3. training for a job

ornate: 1. elaborate or heavily adorned 2. marked by complex language and unusual vocabulary

orthodox: 1. conventional or acceptable by the general public 2. traditional or old-fashioned in one's beliefs 3. a strict observer of a certain faith

ostensible: 1. something apparent or professed to be true 2. something conspicuous and open to view

oust: 1. to eject someone from a place or a role 2. to force someone out of a position

outcome: 1. the result or consequence 2. the effect

output: 1. production over a specific period of time 2. yield 3. energy or power produced by a system or machine

overall: 1. comprehensive 2. all-inclusive 3. total 4. in general

overlap: 1. a shared area of responsibility or interest 2. the amount in which two things cover a shared area 3. the period of time when two different things are occurring

overseas: 1. abroad 2. in a foreign country

oversight: 1. an accidental omission or mistake that often brings about problems 2.careful vigilance 3. surveillance

overt: 1. transparent; done or displayed in public 2. not hidden 3. clear and apparent

pacifist: 1. a person who is totally opposed to the use of violence or force 2. a person opposed to the military who refuses to participate in military activities

pacify: 1. to ease a tense situation or someone's anger 2. to cause calm or peace to come to a previously tense situation 3. to put an end to violence or conflict

painstaking: 1. performing or characterized by diligent and careful work, in which much attention is paid to detail 2. trying very hard to do something

palatable: 1. tasty 2. fit to be consumed by humans 3. acceptable

palliate: 1. to lessen the symptoms of an illness 2. to make something less severe 3. to make something serious seem less important or negative

pallid: 1. lacking vitality, liveliness or intensity; dull 2. extremely pale, to the point that one appears to be unhealthy

panacea: 1. a cure for any malady 2. something that people think will cure any difficulty or problem

panegyric: a speech or piece of writing in praise of someone or something

panel: 1. a board 2. a group of people who work together in order to make decisions, pass judgment or entertain people

paradigm: 1. something that serves as an example or a model 2. accepted ideas or practices that are used in order to explain or view a shared reality

paradox: 1. something that sounds untrue or impossible but might be possible or true 2. something that contradicts itself or has opposite qualities

paragraph: 1. a portion of a text that centers around one specific idea

parallel: 1. not intersecting 2. occurring at the same time 3. extending in the same direction

parameter: 1. a boundary that limits a specific action or process 2. a rule that controls something

paramount: 1. supreme 2. more important than any other thing

parasite: 1. any animal or plant that lives on and feeds on another animal or plant

pariah: 1. a person who is looked down upon or rejected by society, often because they are not trusted or respected 2. an outcast

parity: 1. similarity 2. the condition or state of being equal

parochial: 1. showing interest only in matters that directly affect you; narrow in scope 2. related to a parish

parody: 1. a work of art such as a text or a play which is created to poke fun at or ridicule another work 2. to poke fun at someone or something

parry: 1. to skillfully avoid dealing with criticism or answering a tough question 2. to deflect or ward off an attack

parsimonious: 1. cheap; frugal with one's money 2. unwilling to spend or give money

participate: 1. to be involved in something 2. to take part

partisan: 1. strongly prejudiced in favor of something 2. one-sided or partial 3. someone who is devoted to a political party

passive: 1. inactive 2. complacent 3. submissive 4. inert

patron: 1. a person who supports a group, activity or organization by donating money to them; a benefactor 2. a regular or frequent customer

patronize: 1. to support something or someone financially 2. to act in a condescending way towards someone

paucity: 1. a lack of something 2. scantiness 3. insufficiency in number; shortage

peccadillo: a small mistake, fault, sin, or offense that is not very serious or harmful

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pedant: a person who is obsessed with the rules and minor details

pedantic: 1. giving too much importance to formal rules or small details 2. making an excessive display of one's own learning

pedestrian: 1. ordinary; dull 2. commonplace 3. undistinguished

peerless: 1. unequaled or unrivaled 2. incomparable to anything else 3. better than anything else of its type

pellucid: 1. simple to understand 2. clear, transparent or translucent; allowing the passage of light

penchant: 1. a clear inclination towards something 2. a taste for something

pensive: 1. contemplative 2. appearing as if lost in thought, especially about something serious or sad 3. thoughtful

penury: 1. extreme poverty; the state of being extraordinarily poor 2. insufficiency or scarcity

perceive: 1. to become aware of 2. to observe; to notice

percent: 1. out of one hundred 2. a part of one hundred

perceptive: 1. possessing the ability to perceive things 2. observant 3. capable of noticing and understanding things quickly 4. wise

peremptory: 1. someone who is overly assertive, to the point that they do not allow contradiction 2. someone domineering and totalitarian 3. someone who is offensively arrogant

perfidious: deliberately faithless; treacherous; deceitful

perfunctory: 1. an action performed in a routine and careless manner 2. acting in a way which shows a lack of interest

period: 1. an interval or length of time 2. a full stop

peripheral: 1. something that is found on the outer edge or boundary 2. trivial or unimportant 3. something that is secondary or supplementary

perjury: 1. the act of lying or giving false information while under oath 2. the breaking of an oath or a promise

pernicious: 1. deadly 2. causing extreme harm, destruction or injury

persist: 1. to persevere 2. to continue despite difficulty 3. to stand firm

persistent: 1. unending; unstopping 2. constant 3. stubborn; not willing to give up

personable: 1. attractive both in one's physical appearance and in one's personality 2. friendly or sociable

perspective: 1. a vista or view 2. a way of looking at or examining something 3. an outlook

pertinacious: 1. stubborn or unyielding; resolute in one's belief or opinion 2. determined and persistent 3. obstinate

pertinent: 1. relevant to the topic at hand 2. logically related to the matter 3. fitting

peruse: 1. to read something thoroughly 2. to examine something in detail 3. to skim something; to read something in a relaxed manner

pervasive: 1. spread all over or spreading to all parts 2. present everywhere 3. permeating; penetrating

petrify: 1. to make something become hard or stone like 2. to freeze with horror or fear 3. to make hard or inflexible

petulant: easily, suddenly, frequently, childishly, or unreasonably annoyed, irritable, or bad-tempered, especially over trivial matters

phase: 1. a stage (of time) 2. a period of time in a person's life

phenomenon: 1. an extraordinary person or thing 2. an observable fact or occurrence 3. something remarkable

philistine: 1. an uncultured person who does not like or understand art 2. a vulgar person

philosophy: 1. the study of human morals and behavior 2. ideas and theories about something 3. the way someone thinks about life 4. a theory or belief that guides someone's behavior

phlegmatic: not easily upset, excited, or angered to action or display of emotion; apathetic; sluggish

physical: 1. related to the body 2. related to something one can see and touch; tangible

pillage: 1. to rob using force, especially during wartime 2. to loot

pious: 1. extremely religious 2. devout in one's religious beliefs 3. falsely devout or moral 4. dutiful to one's parents or other authority figures

pithy: 1. precise and full of meaning 2. succinct; concise, yet meaningful

pivotal: 1. of extreme importance 2. critical; crucial 3. significant

placate: make (someone) less angry or hostile, especially by making concessions or by being nice to them

placebo: 1. a harmless substance that has no real affect on the person who takes it 2. something designed or done to placate the person who takes or receives it

placid: 1. peaceful and undisturbed 2. serene, with a lack of movement or activity 3. showing calm

platitude: 1. a trite, dull or unoriginal saying that is considered common information, despite the remark being said as if it were original information 2. absence of originality

plausible: something that is credible and possibly true

plethora: a large or excessive amount of (something), especially a larger amount than you need, want, or can deal with; overabundance; excess

pliable: 1. malleable 2. flexible 3. easy to manipulate into other shapes

plumage: 1. the feathers of a bird (collectively) 2. elaborate costume or dress

plus: 1. positive 2. higher than 3. extra or added

podium: 1. a platform that is raised above the ground which people stand on to give a speech, receive a prize, or to conduct a musical group

polemical: 1. controversial and often hostile 2. strongly critical

policy: 1. a course of action decided upon by an organization, a group of people, a government or a political party 2. guidelines

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ponderous: 1. slow and clumsy because of great weight or size 2. very boring or dull 3. that seems heavy; bulky; massive

portend: 1. to foreshadow something negative that is going to occur in the future 2. to be a sign of something

portent: 1. a warning about something that is going to occur in the future 2. an indication or sign that something is going to happen, especially referring to negative events

portion: 1. a small part or section of something whole; a piece 2. the specific amount of food given to someone

pose: 1. to take on a posture for artistic purposes 2. to formally ask a question 3. to cause a problem 4. to impersonate someone

poseur: 1. a person who pretends to be something that they are not in order to impress others

positive: 1. extremely certain, without any doubt 2. more than zero 3. hopeful or giving reasons to be so

posthumous: 1. taking place after death 2. published after death

postulate: 1. a prerequisite 2. something which is accepted as true before developing or discussing another idea 3. a basic principle

potent: 1. extremely powerful or effective 2. influential 3. possessing great authority or power

potential: 1. possible 2. able to occur 3. capable of developing or happening

practice: the expected procedure or way of doing something

practitioner: 1. a person engaged in a specific practice, such as medicine or law 2. a professional

pragmatic: dealing or concerned with facts or actual practice in a reasonable and logical way instead of depending on ideas, theories or speculation; practical

prattle: 1. to speak at length about subjects that are unimportant, often without making any sense 2. to speak without sense and in a juvenile manner

precarious: 1. something that is not certain 2. risky or subject to chance 3. something which lacks security and is in a possibly dangerous situation

precede: 1. to exist before something 2. to come before 3. to have a higher rank than someone

precedent: 1. a practice or act in the past which is used to justify a similar practice in the present

preceding: 1. before 2. prior to

precept: 1. a command or rule which indicates what proper behavior is 2. a standard of conduct 3. a warrant

precipitate: 1. cause (something) to happen quickly, suddenly, unexpectedly, or prematurely before expected, warranted, needed, or desired 2. throw headlong; hurl downward 3. fall; fall downward suddenly and dramatically

precipitous: 1. quite steep 2. occurring suddenly or dramatically

precise: 1. accurate; exact 2. meticulous or exacting

precocious: 1. (especially of children) unusually advanced or mature in development, especially mental development 2. appearing or developing early

precursor: a person or thing that goes before another person or something else and that often leads to or influences its development; forerunner; harbinger

predecessor: 1. the previous occupant of a post or a role 2. something that comes before another related thing

predicament: 1. a difficult, uncomfortable, embarrassing or dangerous situation that is often difficult to get out of

predict: 1. to say that something is going to happen before it actually does 2. to foretell 3. to announce in advance

predilection: 1. a personal preference towards something 2. a special liking of something

predominant: 1. the most powerful 2. the most common 3. superior or supreme

predominantly: 1. chiefly 2. mainly 3. principally

preeminent: 1. superior 2. excelling or more important than others 3. outstanding

preliminary: 1. introductory 2. leading up to the main event or thing

prerogative: 1. a privilege or something that one is permitted to do that others aren't 2. an advantage 3. a right

presumption: 1. the act of assuming 2. something assumed 3. the act of believing something without seeing proof

presumptuous: going beyond what is right or proper and not showing enough respect, especially because of an excess of self-confidence or arrogance

pretentious: trying to appear or sound as more impressive, successful, or important than someone really is, especially in matters of art and literature

pretext: a false reason or motive that you pretend to have in order to hide your real reason or motive for doing something; excuse

prevaricate: 1. stray away from or avoid telling the truth by not directly answering a question 2. speak or act falsely or misleadingly

previous: 1. anterior 2. something coming or occurring before another event 3. prior

primary: 1. fundamental; principal 2. basic 3. essential 4. happening first

prime: 1. chief 2. most important 3. of the highest quality

primeval: 1. primordial 2. related to or from the earliest time, especially when referring to the origin of Earth 3. original

principal: 1. most important 2. main 3. first in rank or order

principle: 1. a basic rule or law 2. a standard of behavior or morals

prior: 1. coming before 2. preceding 3. previous or former

priority: 1. something that is considered to be extremely important and has the ability to take place before other things 2. possessing the right to come before others

pristine: 1. unspoiled; uncorrupted 2. new and in good condition 3. pure

procedure: 1. a way of doing something 2. a medical treatment 3. course of action

proceed: 1. to continue onward 2. to advance 3. to begin something

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process: 1. a series of happenings or actions that lead to a specific result 2. a naturally occurring series of changes

proclivity: 1. an inclination towards something 2. a natural propensity or tendency 3. a predisposition to want to do something, especially when referring to something bad

procrastinate: 1. delay or postpone doing (something unpleasant or burdensome) until a future time, especially out of habitual carelessness or laziness 2. postpone or delay needlessly

procure: 1. obtain something, especially with care, effort, or difficulty 2. obtain (a sexual partner, especially woman) for another, for the purpose of prostitution

prodigal: 1. carelessly and foolishly wasting a lot of money, time, or supplies, etc. 2. extremely generous; lavish 3. extremely abundant; profuse

prodigious: 1. very great or impressive in size, force, or extent; enormous 2. extraordinary; marvelous; wonderful; amazing

profane: 1. to defile 2. to show a lack of respect for objects considered to be sacred or holy 3. to violate

professional: 1. relating to or suitable for a specific profession 2. performing an activity to earn money instead of to relax or have fun 3. possessing the necessary qualities

profound: 1. very deep 2. (of a state, quality, or emotion) very great 3. (of a disease or disability) very severe 4. (of a subject or idea) intellectually deep; entering far into subjects 5. (of a person or statement) having or showing deep thought or wisdom

profuse: 1. created or given in large amounts; generous 2. plentiful 3. given abundantly or magnanimously

prohibit: 1. to forbid or ban 2. to not allow or permit 3. to officially ban

prohibitive: 1. something that discourages one from doing something 2. restricting people from doing something

project: 1. a scheme or a plan 2. a proposal 3. a task which requires work to be done

proletarian: 1. a member of the working class

proliferate: 1. to increase or grow at a rapid pace 2. to multiply or reproduce quickly

prolific: 1. producing a large amount of something, especially fruit, offspring or works 2. bountiful, fruitful or productive

promote: 1. to raise in rank 2. to encourage or support 3. to encourage people to buy something 4. to give publicity to

promulgate: 1. to put an official decree or law into effect via official announcement 2. to make something publicly known by officially announcing it

propensity: 1. a tendency or natural inclination to behave in a certain way 2. a preference

propitiate: 1. make (a god, spirit, or person) pleased, less angry, or regain their favor by giving or doing something that pleases them 2. appease; conciliate

propitious: 1. likely to result in or show success 2. something advantageous 3. benevolent; favorable

proponent: 1. a person who is actively in favor of something 2. a supporter 3. an advocate

proportion: 1. the amount of something in relation to the whole 2. the comparative size or degree 3. the relation between size and number

prosaic: lacking in interest, imagination, originality, or excitement; commonplace or dull; matter-of-fact or unimaginative

proscribe: 1. to make something no longer be lawful; to prohibit (legally) 2. to banish 3. to forbid 4. to denounce

prospect: 1. the ability to do something, especially in the future 2. a possibility 3. chances or opportunities for success

prospective: 1. something in the future that is expected or predicted to happen 2. probable or likely to happen

prosperity: a successful, flourishing, or thriving condition, especially in financial respects; good fortune, wealth, success, etc.

protagonist: 1. one of the main characters of a story 2. a leader of a cause or movement

protean: 1. ever changing 2. versatile and able to change form, shape or meaning quickly 3. able to play many roles

protocol: 1. the rules and regulations governing certain situations 2. a record of a transaction 3. a formal diplomatic agreement between two or more countries

provident: 1. making arrangements for the future and showing foresight 2. preparing for the future, especially by saving money for possible emergencies

provocative: 1. provoking or tending to provoke, as to action, thought, feeling, etc.; inciting, stimulating, irritating, or vexing 2. causing people to become sexually excited

prudent: 1. careful, and using good judgment in practical matters 2. careful in regard to one's own interests; provident 3. cautious or discreet in conduct; circumspect; not rash

psychology: 1. the study of the human mind and human behavior

publication: 1. something that's been published; printed matter 2. the process or act of making a book, magazine or newspaper available to the public

puerile: 1. childish, juvenile or immature 2. silly; foolish 3. related to or belonging to childhood

punctilious: 1. exact in one's attention to detail; extremely correct with one's behavior

pundit: 1. an expert or educated person on a specific subject 2. an authority on a specific subject who often makes public declarations on the subject

purchase: 1. an object that has been bought 2. the act of buying something

purloin: 1. to take something from someone in violation of their trust 2. to pilfer or steal

pursue: 1. to follow someone or something 2. to hunt for or look for

pusillanimous: lacking courage or determination; cowardly; faint-hearted; timid

quaff: 1. to drink or swallow hurriedly and heartily

quagmire: 1. a soft and wet piece of land which yields if stepped on 2. a complicated, dangerous or awkward situation

quaint: 1. picturesque 2. old-fashioned 3. interesting or appealing yet quirky in an old-fashioned way

qualitative: 1. relating to the quality of something

quandary: 1. a dilemma or a problem 2. a state of uncertainty 3. a state of doubt or confusion

quarry: 1. an open-air pit from which rock is excavated 2. a person or animal being hunted or searched for

querulous: often complaining, especially in a way that annoys other people

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quixotic: having or showing ideas, plans, hope, etc. that are not practical or likely to succeed; unrealistic and impractical

quotation: 1. specific words that have been directly taken from a certain source 2. the act of using someone else's words

quote: 1. to repeat someone else's words 2. to say something that has previously been said or written

radical: 1. extreme; drastic 2. supporting drastic changes 3. very important 4. new and different

ramble: 1. to walk about or move about in an aimless manner 2. to follow a winding path 3. to write or talk in an aimless, uncontrolled manner 4. to stroll or walk for pleasure

rampant: (of something bad) growing, happening, or spreading quickly and in an uncontrolled way

ramshackle: (especially of buildings or vehicles) in a very bad condition and likely to fall down; out of repair; likely to fall to pieces; shaky

rancor: a bitter and long-lasting angry feeling of hatred or dislike about something in the past

random: 1. possessing no specific plan or structure 2. done by chance

range: 1. a set of things that are similar 2. the upper and lower limits 3. the period of time in which something can happen

rarefy: 1. make or become rare, thin, porous, or less dense 2. make or become more purified, refined, subtle, spiritual, or lofty

rash: 1. not cautious 2. acting without pausing to think 3. reckless

ratify: (especially of governments or organizations) make (a treaty, contract, or agreement) official by signing it or formally accepting it

ratio: 1. a rate 2. the relationship between two numbers or amounts

rational: 1. logical 2. using reason to make decisions or act 3. sensible

raucous: loud, harsh, and disturbing noise

ravenous: 1. extremely or wildly hungry; voracious 2. very eager for prey or gratification

raze: 1. completely destroy a city, building, etc. 2. scrape or shave off; erase

react: 1. to respond to a stimulus 2. to act in opposition 3. to change in response to a specific stimulus

reap: 1. cut (wheat, rye, etc.) with a scythe, sickle, or reaping machine 2. gather or take (a crop, harvest, etc.) by cutting 3. gain or obtain as the reward of one’s own or another’s action, conduct, work, etc.

rebuke: 1. to punish or scold someone severely 2. to express disapproval, often in a sharp way 3. to harshly criticize

recalcitrant: 1. (of a person ) stubbornly refusing to obey authority, discipline, rules, orders, etc. 2. (of an animal ) refusing to be controlled

recapitulate: 1. to summarize something or repeat it in a more concise way 2. to briefly restate

receptacle: 1. any container or device for holding substances or objects 2. a vessel used to hold things

recluse: a person who lives alone and tends to avoid other people, often for religious meditation

rectify: 1. correct (something that is wrong) or make something right or better 2. correct by calculation or adjustment

redolent: 1. sweet-smelling; fragrant; aromatic 2. strongly smelling of 3. (redolent of/with) strongly reminding you of something

refine: 1. to purify; to take impurities out of something 2. to make changes in order to improve something

refurbish: 1. to restore something to its original quality 2. to renovate 3. to make something look like new again

refute: 1. to prove that something is not correct or true 2. to deny something

regale: 1. to entertain someone with food or drink; to feast 2. to entertain someone with a story or something amusing

regime: 1. a government that is currently in power 2. a system of rules 3. a political system 4. a management system

region: 1. a specific part of the world; a large area of land where the people or land possesses similar characteristics 2. a district 3. a part of the body

register: 1. to record something in writing 2. to enroll a student in a school 3. to express or show 4. to convey

regulate: 1. to create and impose rules for something 2. to adjust to ensure accuracy 3. to control; to manage

reinforce: 1. to make something stronger 2. to enhance something 3. to support an idea by giving evidence or reasons

reject: 1. to refuse something 2. to turn something down 3. to decline

relax: 1. to stop doing something in order to rest 2. to slacken or make less rigid 3. to make less severe 4. to calm

relaxed: 1. not strict 2. free 3. calm 4. informal

release: 1. to let go or free 2. to emancipate 3. to allow something to flow freely 4. to make information available to the public

relegate: 1. put (someone or something) into a lower or less important rank or position 2. refer, commit, or hand over for decision, action, etc. 3. (UK) moved down to a lower division

relevant: 1. related to the issue being discussed or debated 2. pertinent 3. connected to an issue

reliance: 1. a dependence on a specific person or object 2. the act of depending on someone or something

relinquish: 1. give up (something, such as power, control, or possession), especially when you do not want to do this; retire from; abandon 2. surrender 3. let go (a grasp, hold, etc.)

reluctant: 1. unwilling to do something 2. uneager to do something

rely: 1. to depend on 2. to trust 3. to have confidence in

remove: 1. to get rid of 2. to take away 3. to take off 4. to send away

renounce: 1. give up (a claim, right, or possession, etc.), especially by formal announcement 2. give up (a cause, bad habit, way of life, etc.) voluntarily 3. reject; disown

renovation: 1. restore to an earlier condition by making changes and repairs, especially an old house, building, room, etc. 2. reinvigorate; refresh; revive

repertory: 1. the repeated performance of various plays, operas, or ballets one after the other by one company of actors 2. a repository or collection, especially of information; storehouse 3. the things stored; stock; collection

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replete: 1. completely stuffed; full, especially referring to food 2. well supplied

reprehensible: unacceptable, very bad, and deserving to be criticized

reprieve: 1. a way out of,or temporary relief from a bad experience or situation 2. the deferment or complete cancellation of punishment

reproach: express disapproval of, criticism of, or disappointment in (someone), especially for not being successful or not doing what is expected

reprobate: 1. someone who has bad habits or lacks scruples 2. a person without principles

reprove: 1. to find fault with 2. to condemn, criticize or express disapproval of bad behavior 3. to rebuke

repudiate: 1. refuse to accept or reject with denial 2. disown

require: 1. to make something obligatory 2. to expect 3. to need something

rescind: end, revoke, repeal, or cancel (a law, agreement, order, or decision, etc.)

research: 1. to investigate 2. to make inquiries in order to find out information 3. to carefully study something in order to find out new information

reside: 1. to inhabit 2. to live in a certain place 3. to exist

resident: 1. someone who lives in a certain place or region 2. an inhabitant

resilient: (of a substance or object) bouncing or springing back into shape, position, etc. after being pulled, stretched, pressed, bent, etc. 2. able to quickly become strong, healthy, happy, or successful again after an illness, disappointment, or other problem

resolution: 1. a decision that is made by a group through a voting process 2. a personal promise to oneself 3. a formal statement of intent or opinion

resolve: 1. firm or strong determination 2. a resolution made by a legislative body; a ruling

resonant: 1. prompting thoughts of a similar experience 2. loud, clear, or deep 3. enduring 4. echoing

resource: 1. material used to do or make something 2. a supply of something that can be used when required 3. a country's tools for generating wealth

respite: 1. a short break or delay from work or an unpleasant experience 2. a postponement of punishment

resplendent: 1. brilliant; dazzling; bright; shiny 2. beautiful 3. impressive

respond: 1. to answer 2. to react in a favorable way

restore: 1. to bring something back to its original condition 2. to make something new again

restrain: 1. to hold back or put limits on someone or something 2. to curb 3. to keep under control

restrained: calm, controlled and not emotional; unemotional or dispassionate

restrict: 1. to limit 2. to physically confine 3. to keep under control

retain: 1. to remember information 2. to hold or keep someone or something 3. to hire someone by paying them an initial fee

reticent: 1. not willing to tell people about one's thoughts, feelings, and personal affairs 2. uncommunicative, restrained, or reserved in style 3. reluctant; unwilling

reveal: 1. to show or disclose 2. to divulge 3. to make known

revenue: 1. income 2. money that an organization, government or company receives from different sources

revere: 1. to honor or respect someone very much 2. to venerate or worship

reverent: feeling, showing, or characterized by great respect and admiration; deeply respectful

reverse: 1. to overturn 2. to send in the opposite direction 3. to move backwards

revise: 1. to check something and make changes to make sure that it is acceptable 2. to change or amend 3. to alter

revision: 1. a modification or edit of something 2. the act of looking over something that one has done

revolution: 1. a huge change in something, such as a political organization or country 2. the circular movement around a certain celestial body 3. a complete cycle 4. a very important change in the way people act

rhetoric: 1. a style of speaking or writing that is intended to influence people and that may not be honest or reasonable 2. the art, skill, or study of using language formally and effectively in speaking or writing

rigid: 1. stiff 2. hard 3. unyielding or not able to be bent 4. unable to be changed or modified

rigor: 1. strictness, harshness, or severity 2. exactitude 3. inflexibility

robust: 1. healthy 2. hardy or strong 3. sturdy and able to withstand detrimental conditions 4. successful

role: 1. the part that a performer in theater acts out 2. one's proper function in society 3. a person's function

rouse: 1. wake (someone) from sleep 2. cause (someone who is tired, lazy, or unwilling to do something) to become active 3. make angry or excited, as to anger or action; stir up 4. (nautical) pull or haul strongly and all together, especially by hand

route: 1. a course or path of travel 2. a course that certain forms of transport follow habitually 3. a way of achieving something

ruminate: 1. to think about something carefully over a long period of time 2. to meditate on 3. to chew on cud

ruse: 1. a trick with is used with the intent of confusing or deceiving someone 2. a plan used to hide one's own intentions

sacrosanct: 1. something that is considered to be sacred 2. something considered far too important to be subjected to changes

sagacious: having or showing acute mental discernment and keen practical sense and the ability to make good practical decisions

sagacity: the quality of being discerning, sound in judgment, and farsighted based on practical knowledge and experience

sage: 1. a plant used to flavor food 2. having or exhibiting wisdom and calm judgment, especially as a result of great experience

salient: 1. of utmost importance; prominent; notable 2. protruding beyond a line or surface 3. jumping

salutary: 1. beneficial 2. favorable to one's health 3. bringing about good effects or improvement

sanctimonious: pretending to be morally better than other people; excessively or hypocritically pious

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sanction: 1. official permission or approval, as for an action 2. a threat to punish someone for breaking a law or rule 3. an official order, such as the limiting or stopping of trade, that is taken against a country in order to force it to obey international laws

sanguine: cheerfully optimistic, hopeful, or confident, especially in a difficult situation

sardonic: 1. demonstrating a lack of respect for another person or what they have said or done 2. mocking 3. sneering 4. cynical

sate: satisfy (an appetite, desire, etc.) fully

satire: the use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize someone or something and make them seem foolish, weak, bad, etc.

saturate: 1. make something completely wet with water or other liquid so that no more can be absorbed 2. cause (a substance) to combine with, dissolve, or hold the greatest possible amount of another substance

saturnine: very serious and unhappy; gloomy; taciturn

savant: a person with a high level of knowledge or skill, especially a distinguished scientist

scale: 1. to climb a surface that is steep 2. to set something according to a scale or measure something by a scale 3. to remove something in layers or scales

scapegoat: 1. a person who is blamed in place of others for something that is not their fault or doing

scenario: 1. a possible situation 2. a written description or outline of a play, movie or other theater-based work

schedule: 1. to arrange for something; to make arrangements 2. to plan for something 3. to make plans

scheme: 1. an elaborate plan that is devised in order to gain something and, often, trick people 2. an official plan

scintillating: 1. very clever, amusing, and interesting 2. sparkling or shining brightly

scope: the range of one's perceptions, thoughts, or actions; extent; bound

scrupulous: 1. very careful about doing something correctly, giving a lot of attention to details 2. careful about doing what is honest and morally right

scrutinize: examine or inspect (something) closely, thoroughly, and very carefully

section: 1. a piece of something 2. a part of a whole object 3. a smaller part of a book or a newspaper

sector: 1. a division of a society or an economy 2. a part of something that is different from others

secure: 1. safe 2. free from danger or worry 3. strong or stable

security: 1. safety 2. a general freedom from risks

sedulous: showing continued hard work, effort, dedication, and determination

select: 1. preferred 2. of a special value or importance 3. exclusive 4. discriminating 5. only the best

sentinel: 1. a person or an animal that guards a certain location 2. a sentry; someone who keeps watch

sequence: 1. the order or pattern in which things happen or take place 2. a set of things that is put in a specific order

sequester: 1. to take someone's property until they have paid their debts or complied with an order 2. to seclude or segregate 3. to hide something away

serene: 1. tranquil, peaceful or calm 2. bright or clear 3. untroubled or unaffected

series: 1. a sequence of things 2. a set of related objects 3. a collection of episodes of a television show that use the same characters in different situations

serrated: 1. possessing a row of tooth-like sharp points along its edge 2. saw-like

servile: 1. too eager to serve, please, or obey others 2. of a slave or slaves

shift: 1. a slight change in something 2. a change 3. a period of approximately eight hours during which workers perform their jobs

shrewd: having or showing sharp powers to understand things and to make good judgments in practical affairs; astute

shroud: 1. something that covers or hides something; hide from view 2. a cloth used to wrap a body for burial; wrap for burial 3. take shelter or harbor

significant: 1. quite important 2. suggesting or showing a meaning 3. noticeable or detectable 4. noteworthy

similar: 1. related to something else 2. nearly the same, but not exactly the same 3. comparable

simulate: 1. to reproduce a situation 2. to feign 3. to do something that looks as if it is real when it truly is not

site: 1. a place where something can be found or where something is located

skeptical: 1. having, showing or marked by doubt 2. doubting 3. questioning

slight: 1. small in size, degree, or amount 2. treat with disrespect or indifference; treat as unimportant

solace: give comfort to in sorrow, misfortune, or trouble

sole: 1. the bottom part of a foot or shoe 2. the bottom part of an object such as a golf club or a plow

solely: 1. exclusively 2. alone; not involving anyone or anything else 3. exclusively

solicit: 1. to ask for something, often through a formal process 2. to petition

somber: 1. very sad and serious; gloomy; depressing or grave 2. dull or dark in color, especially grey or black

somewhat: 1. slightly 2. a little bit 3. to a certain degree

sophistry: the clever use of reasoning or arguments that seem true but are really false, especially with the intention of deceiving

soporific: 1. causing sleep 2. drowsy

source: 1. the place in which something originates or which someone comes from 2. a point or place of origin 3. a person who provides information

sparse: 1. not dense or thick 2. small in amount and not dense or crowded 3. scanty

Spartan: avoiding luxury and comfort; rigorously self-disciplined or self-restrained

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specific: 1. clear and precise 2. special 3. particular; relating to one specific person, group or thing 4. unique

specified: 1. defined 2. thoroughly commented or explained 3. expressly stated

specify: 1. to designate 2. to state in an explicit manner 3. to be specific

specious: seeming to be right or true, but in fact wrong or false

sphere: 1. a globe; a ball shaped object 2. an area of knowledge, study or expertise

spontaneity: the state, quality, or fact of being spontaneous

spontaneous: 1. happening or done in a natural, often sudden way, without being planned or thought about 2. growing without cultivation or human labor, as plants and fruits

sporadic: 1. occurring at irregular intervals; not constant or regular; patternless 2. appearing singly or at widely scattered localities, as a plant or disease

spurious: 1. not genuine, authentic, or true; counterfeit 2. based on false ideas or bad reasoning

spurn: refuse or reject with contempt or disdain, especially because you feel that something or someone does not deserve your respect, attention, affection, etc.

squander: spend or use (money, time, supplies, or an opportunity) wastefully or extravagantly

stability: 1. balance 2. firmness of position 2. being unlikely to change

stable: 1. constant 2. unwavering 3. strongly fixed 4. firmly established

stagnant: 1. (of water or air ) not flowing or moving, and often smells bad 2. not active, changing, or progressing

staid: of a settled, unadventurous, sedate, and steady but boring character

stanza: 1. a part of a poem that is presented in paragraph form

stark: 1. very obvious; very plain and easily seen; unpleasantly or sharply clear 2. complete; absolute; full; perfect; entire 3. unpleasant and difficult to accept or experience; severe; violent; fierce

static: not moving, acting, or progressing, especially in an undesirable or uninteresting way

statistics: 1. a field of study that collects and analyzes data 2. the data collected and what it means

status: 1. one's standing in relation to others 2. one's position in society 3. a state of things or events

staunch: very committed or loyal to a person, belief, or cause

steadfast: 1. very committed or loyal to a person, belief, or cause 2. not changing, fickle, or wavering; constant

stereotype: 1. an oversimplified way of looking at something 2. a simple and unwavering idea about what a certain person or group of people are like

stifle: 1. to hide or conceal something 2. to repress 3. to suffocate or smother 4. to prevent something from happening

stock: 1. the supply of goods or merchandise available for sale or distribution in a store or warehouse 2. a supply of something for future use or sale 3. the shares of a particular company or corporation

stoic: 1. not showing emotion or complaining, even when something bad happens 2. unemotional 3. indifferent to pleasure and pain

straightforward: 1. clear and easy to understand 2. frank; honest 3. direct

stress: 1. the pressure exerted on a physical object 2. emotional stress or anxiety caused by a difficult situation 3. emphasis placed on something

strident: 1. (of a sound) loud, unpleasant, and rough 2. presenting a point of view, especially a controversial one, in a way that offends some people

stringent: 1. strict, rigid 2. binding 3. constraining 4. extremely limiting

structure: 1. a free-standing building made from different parts 2. the way in which something is organized 3. the quality of being organized

submit: 1. to hand in or present something to a teacher, boss or other other person 2. to permit someone to exercise control over you 3. to surrender to authority

subordinate: 1. from a lower rank or position 2. inferior 3. less important

subsequent: 1. following 2. succeeding 3. happening after something else

subsidiary: 1. secondary 2. used to supplement something or someone 3. auxiliary

subsidy: 1. money that a government gives a group to help it 2. financial assistance

substantiate: 1. support with proof or evidence 2. give concrete form or body to; convert into substance; embody 3. give substance to; make real or actual

substitute: 1. to temporarily replace someone or something with something else 2. to exchange one thing for another

subtle: 1. thin, tenuous, or rarefied, as a fluid or an odor 2. not obvious, and so slight as to be difficult to notice, see, detect, or describe 3. able to make fine distinctions 4. making use of clever and indirect methods to achieve something

subversive: trying to overthrow, destroy, or damage an established system or institution by persons working secretly from within, especially an established government or political system

successive: 1. consecutive 2. following 3. sequential

succinct: 1. concise and clearly expressed 2. expressed in a short and easy to understand way

succulent: 1. (of food) tender, juicy, and tasty 2. (of a plant) having thick, fleshy, water-storing leaves or stems 3. full of interest, vigor, etc.; not dry or dull

sufficient: 1. enough as necessary 2. adequate

sum: 1. the total of a calculation 2. an amount of money 3. the total amount of something in existence

summary: 1. an explanation of something giving the main points or ideas of the original document or argument 2. a recapitulation

supercilious: behaving or looking as though you are better or more important than everyone else, and that their opinions, beliefs, or ideas are not important

superficial: 1. being at, on, or near the surface 2. shallow; not profound or thorough

superfluous: being more than is needed, useful, or wanted; surplus; excessive

supplant: remove or uproot (someone or something that is old or no longer used or accepted) in order to replace with (more powerful) someone or something else

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supplement: 1. to add to something, especially in order to make up for a deficiency 2. an addition 3. something added to make something complete

supplementary: 1. used in order to complete something 2. additional

suppress: 1. end or stop (something) by force 2. keep (something) secret; keep from appearing or being known, published, etc. 3. stop yourself feeling, showing, or being affected by an emotion

surfeit: 1. an excessive or too large amount or supply of something 2. overeat or feed to excess 3. disgust caused by excess

surly: 1. rude or threatening 2. hostile 3. unfriendly 4. dismal or menacing (related to weather) 5. bad tempered

surmise: 1. to draw a conclusion or guess, usually with little to no proof or evidence 2. to conjecture

surreptitious: 1. obtained, done, or made in a secret, stealthy way, especially because it would not be approved of; clandestine; secret or unauthorized 2. acting in a secret, stealthy way

survey: 1. a poll used to measure public opinion or the incidence of something in a society 2. an examination of a subject or a situation 3. a careful examination of land in order to map it

survive: 1. to live through an event 2. to stay alive 3. to continue to exist 4. to outlive someone

susceptible: 1. easily influenced or harmed by something 2. (of a person) easily affected emotionally; sensitive 3. a person who is vulnerable to being infected by a certain disease, or to be affected by it more severely than others are

suspect: 1. to distrust someone or something 2. to think that someone or something is responsible for a specific action or something bad

suspend: 1. to delay something 2. to postpone 3. to stop something temporarily or permanently 4. to hang something in the air

sustain: 1. to bear or to hold 2. to support 3. to keep something alive 4. to provide for 5. to deal with

sybarite: 1. a person who is quite fond of luxury and pleasure

sycophant: a self-seeking person who attempts to win favor by flattering rich or influential people

symbol: 1. a sign 2. a shape, object or picture which is used to represent something 3. something used to represent or show an idea

taciturn: tending not to speak much; not liking to talk; uncommunicative

tactile: 1. tangible 2. related to the sense of touch 3. perceptible or detectable through touch

tangential: 1. slightly or indirectly related to what you are doing, discussing, or thinking about; not closely connected to something 2. merely touching; slightly connected; peripheral

tangible: 1. palpable 2. able to be felt or touched 3. real

tantamount: 1. of an equal amount of value, force, etc. 2. having an equal effect as something 3. equivalent to

tardy: 1. late 2. slow to perform a task or do something 3. delayed

target: 1. a goal 2. an object that is shot at 3. an objective 4. something that one wants to achieve

task: 1. to assign a job to someone 2. to place a burden on someone

tawdry: 1. unpleasant or immoral 2. cheap and clearly of bad quality 3. gaudy

team: 1. a group of people that work toward a common goal 2. two or more animals that work together to pull something

technical: 1. mechanical 2. specialized 3. having or requiring specialized knowledge

technique: 1. a way of performing a specific task 2. a method of doing something or carrying out a task 3. a technical skill

technology: 1. the use of scientific knowledge for practical purposes, with special reference to its use in industry 2. applied sciences

tedium: 1. boredom 2. tediousness 3. the state of being boring over an extended period of time

teem: 1. be full of things; abound or swarm; move in large numbers 2. be present in large quantity

temerity: 1. recklessness or disregard for danger or consequences 2. foolish boldness 3. audacity

temper: 1. to neutralize or relax something 2. to moderate 3. to cause a substance to reach its desired consistency or hardness, often by putting it through a heating and cooling process

temperate: 1. emotionally calm and controlled 2. not extreme in behavior or language 3. (of weather conditions) neither very hot nor very cold

temporary: 1. limited 2. not lasting or permanent 3. passing 4. brief

temporize: act evasively in order to gain time, avoid argument, or postpone a decision

tenacious: 1. holding firmly 2. that clings; adhesive; sticky 3. holding together firmly; cohesive 4. very determined to do something; persistent; stubborn

tense: 1. tight 2. pulled to its limit 3. nervous or stressed 4. rigid

tension: 1. a feeling of nervousness before something 2. a feeling of anger or hostility between two or more people 3. the degree to which a string, rope or wire is tensed

tentative: 1. provisional 2. not fixed or positive 3. experimental 4. hesitant or without confidence; uncertain

tenuous: 1. thin, weak, and easily broken; not certain, definite, or strong 2. very thin or slender in form, as a thread; insubstantial

terminate: 1. to stop 2. to put an end to 3. to sack or fire 4. to conclude

termination: 1. the conclusion to or end of something 2. the act of ending something

terse: 1. short or curt, often in a way that is interpreted as unfriendly 2. concise and to the point

text: 1. a piece of writing such as a book 2. all the words that were said in a speech 3. written words

theme: 1. the topic or subject discussed in a book, essay, conversation, debate, etc. 2. a subject that is brought up frequently 3. the style upon which something is based

theory: 1. a hypothesis 2. an idea that tries to explain something 3. an idea used to justify or explain something

thereby: 1. because of 2. thus 3. as a result

thesis: 1. the subject to be written about or debated in an essay 2. a long study written while one is studying one's doctoral degree 3. the main idea of a written work

thwart: 1. to prevent something from happening 2. to hinder, frustrate or foil

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timorous: 1. lacking confidence or nervous 2. showing fear 3. demonstrating timidness

tirade: a long, angry speech criticizing or accusing someone or something

topic: 1. a subject that is currently being examined or discussed in a conversation, book, essay, article, etc. 2. a theme

torpid: 1. dormant or acting in a slow way due to laziness or sleepiness 2. deprived of all power 3. dull

torpor: a state of not being active and having no or very little energy or enthusiasm

tortuous: 1. full of twists, turns, or bends 2. complicated, long, and confusing

totalitarian: relating to a system of government that is centralized, maintains complete control under a dictatorship, and does not allow people freedom to oppose them

totter: 1. to walk or move in an unsteady way, as if one were about to fall 2. to stagger 3. to sway or rock

tout: 1. try to persuade people to like, accept, or buy something by praising or recommending highly and repeatedly, especially loudly and in public 2. (British) buy tickets for an event and resell them at a much higher price

trace: 1. to follow or to track 2. to find the starting point of something 3. to copy a drawing by placing a piece of paper over the original and following the lines one can see through the paper

tractable: 1. (of a person) easily managed, taught, or controlled 2. (of a situation or problem) easy to deal with

tranquil: 1. calm 2. relaxed 3. free from disturbances 4. quiet

transfer: 1. moving something from one place to another 2. an exchange 3. giving property or financial holdings to another person

transform: 1. to change something 2. to convert 3. to totally change something in an attempt to make it more attractive or improve it

transformation: 1. a major change in something or someone 2. a change into something entirely different 3. the process of changing into something totally different

transgress: 1. to surpass the limits of what is considered by society to be acceptable 2. to sin 3. to go beyond

transient: existing, happening, or staying somewhere for only a short time; temporary

transition: 1. the conversion from one state to another 2. to cause someone or something to convert from one state to another

transmission: 1. the act of sending out a message or broadcasting a message 2. the act of passing something from one person to another

transmit: 1. to convey 2. to send across 3. to communicate or broadcast 4. to give a virus or illness to others 5. to pass from one person to another

transmute: 1. to transform 2. to convert from one form or state into another 3. to cause something to convert into something else

transport: 1. to carry something 2. to bring something from one point to another 3. to move goods or people using vehicles

traverse: 1. to move across or through 2. to cross 3. to extend across

trenchant: 1. clear-cut 2. forceful, vigorous, or severe especially when referring to one's arguments or ideas

trend: 1. the general direction in which something is moving or the way people are behaving 2. a fashion 3. a tendency

trepidation: a feeling of fear or worry about what is going to happen because you think something bad or unpleasant is going to happen

trigger: 1. to bring about 2. to cause 3. to set something off 4. to make something happen

trite: 1. (of a remark or idea) not fresh or original 2. not interesting or effective because of overuse or repetition; worn out by constant use; common

trivial: 1. of no real importance 2. ordinary 3. insignificant or minor

truculent: easily annoyed or angered and always ready, eager or quick to argue or fight

truncate: 1. to make something shorter by cutting off one of its ends

turgid: 1. pompous or too serious; grandiloquent 2. swollen or bloated

turpitude: depraved, shameful, dishonest, or immoral behavior or character

tyro: 1. a person who has just started learning or doing something 2. a beginner or novice

ubiquitous: present, or seeming to be present everywhere, especially at the same time; omnipresent

ultimate: 1. last 2. found at the end of something 3. the best or the worst of something 4. the most extreme

ultimately: 1. finally 2. in the end 3. at last

umbrage: to be displeased, offended or annoyed by what someone has said or done

uncanny: strange or mysterious, especially in a way that is difficult or impossible to explain or understand

uncouth: 1. behaving in a rude, unpleasant, or offensive way 2. not polite or socially acceptable

unctuous: 1. oily or greasy 2. overly friendly or interested behavior that is often clearly insincere

undergo: 1. to go through a certain procedure or experience 2. to experience something 3. to endure 4. to suffer something

underlie: 1. to serve as a basis for 2. to be a strong influence on 3. to be situated below something

underlying: 1. fundamental 2. lying beneath 3. basic

underscore: 1. to emphasize or stress something 2. to draw a line under a word or words 3. to stress

undertake: 1. to agree to do something 2. to begin something, especially a long and difficult process 3. to pledge to do something

ungainly: (of a person or movement) awkward; clumsy; not moving in an attractive or graceful way

uniform: 1. a set of clothes that must be worn to be in a specific school or do a specific job 2. an outfit worn by people from a same school or doing the same job

unify: 1. to join two or more units together in order to create a newer, larger unit 2. to combine 3. to consolidate

unique: 1. special 2. being the only one of its kind 3. unparalleled 4. extraordinary

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unprecedented: 1. new and never been seen or done before 2. without precedent

unruly: difficult or impossible to discipline, control, or rule

unscathed: 1. safe 2. unharmed or not injured 3. not damaged

upbraid: 1. to harshly criticize or scold 2. to strongly reproach someone for their behavior

upshot: 1. the outcome or result 2. the main idea; the gist 3. the conclusion

urbane: (of a person, especially a man) polite, courteous, and confident in a smooth, polished way

usurp: seize and hold (power, a position, property, rights, etc.) by force or without legal right

utilitarian: 1. useful; practical; not for show 2. capable of being used 3. created with its utility, not its beauty, in mind

utility: 1. a public service 2. something useful to the public 3. usefulness

utopian: 1. modeled on or related to the idea of a perfect society 2. visionary 3. impractical

utter: Complete

vacillate: 1. to change opinions or show indecision 2. to sway or stagger in an unsteady manner 3. to oscillate

vacuous: 1. having or showing a lack of intelligence, interest, purpose, or thought 2. without contents, meaning, importance, or substance; empty

valid: 1. sound 2. binding 3. well-grounded 4. effective 5. possessing legal force

validity: 1. well grounded 2. the state of being valid 3. having legal force

vanquish: completely defeat in a contest, conflict, or competition

vapid: 1. showing no intelligence or imagination, and therefore very boring 2. lifeless, dull, or boring 3. lacking taste or flavor

vary: 1. to change 2. to fluctuate 3. to alter 4. to differ

vehement: 1. powerful 2. forceful 3. intense; impassioned 4. expressing strong feelings and great energy

vehicle: 1. any device which is used to transport one or more people around 2. a means or way of expressing a certain idea

venal: 1. dishonest and ready to do dishonest things in return for money; open to bribery 2. for sale, available for a price, as by a bribe

veneer: 1. a thin coating 2. a decorative coating or facade 3. a polite but insincere way of behaving

venerable: deserving respect, especially because of age, wisdom, character, long use, etc.

venerate: regard or treat (someone or something ) with great respect

venial: 1. trivial 2. easily forgiven 3. minor

veracity: 1. honesty, accuracy, truthfulness 2. habitual or constant truthfulness

verbose: using or containing more words than are necessary, and therefore long and boring

verdant: 1. covered in green, often referring to vegetation 2. inexperienced

version: 1. an individual's view about something that happened 2. an adaptation 3. a form of a book or other object that is slightly different from other books or objects

vex: make someone angry, annoyed, confused, or worried, especially with trivial matters

via: 1. by way of or through

vicarious: 1. living an experience through another person's description instead of doing the action oneself 2. suffered by one person in place of another, especially referring to punishment

vicissitude: 1. changes that occur throughout one's life, often making things worse; the ups and downs of life 2. mutability or the natural process of change 3. alternation between opposite things

vignette: 1. a short story 2. a small decorative design found at the start or end of a chapter in a book 3. a small image or drawing which fades into its background

vilify: 1. to slander or spread negative information about 2. to use negative language about someone

vindicate: 1. clear from criticism, blame, guilt, suspicion, etc. with supporting arguments or proof 2. defend or maintain (a cause, claim, etc.) against opposition

virtually: 1. essentially 2. almost 3. just about

virtuoso: a person who has special knowledge or skill in in some fine art, especially playing a musical instrument

virulent: 1. (of a disease or poison) extremely infectious, malignant, or poisonous; deadly 2. (of a pathogen, especially a virus) highly infective 3. bitterly hostile or antagonistic; full of hate and violent opposition

viscous: (of liquids) thick and sticky and does not flow easily

visible: 1. able to be seen 2. frequently seen in public; conspicuous 3. obvious

vision: 1. sight 2. the ability to see 3. a mental image 4. something or someone considered to be extremely beautiful

visual: 1. capable of being seen with one's naked eye 2. related to sight 3. relating to things that can be seen

vital: 1. necessary for life 2. related to life 3. showing great energy or liveliness 4. of great importance; crucial

vitriolic: 1. cruel and hateful language 2. marked by notable criticism or sarcasm

vocation: a particular occupation, business, or profession, especially one for which a person is particularly suited or qualified

vociferous: 1. highly opinionated and loud about one's beliefs 2. clamorous or offensively loud

volatile: 1. (of a substance) vaporizing or evaporating quickly 2. likely to change suddenly and unexpectedly or suddenly become violent or angry; unstable; explosive

voluble: 1. talkative; speaking with enthusiasm 2. fluent 3. expressed in many words 4. garrulous

volume: 1. the amount of space taken up by something 2. an amount of something 3. the sound level

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voluminous: 1. large in volume 2. bulky 3. great in extent 4. long and detailed; enough to fill volumes (writing)

voluntary: 1. not obligatory 2. unenforced 3. given or done by choice

voracious: 1. consuming or eager to consume very large amounts of food 2. very eager in some desire, activity or pursuit

waive: 1. to defer something 2. to relinquish a right to something 3. to not enforce something 4. to put aside

wane: 1. to decline in power 2. to lose strength or intensity 3. to approach the end 4. to ebb or dwindle

wanton: 1. a cruel, malicious or violent action done, shown, used deliberately, unprovokedly and unjustifiably 2. careless; reckless

wary: cautious or nervous about possible dangers or problems; watchful

waver: 1. be undecided between two opinions, possibilities, or courses of action or you keep choosing one way and then the other 2. become unsteady because of weakness, emotion, tiredness, etc.

wax: 1. to get larger or increase in size 2. to become stronger 3. to put wax on a surface 4. to express oneself

waylay: 1. to wait to ambush 2. to stop someone who is going somewhere in order to talk to them or to harm them 3. to intercept or interrupt someone

welfare: 1. the well-being of a person or people 2. financial aid from a government to a person in need

whereas: 1. in contrast to the fact that 2. although 3. since

whereby: 1. by which

whet: 1. to stimulate or increase someone's interest in something 2. to sharpen

whimsical: 1. strange and unusual in a way that is considered to be amusing or interesting 2. capricious 3. unpredictable and erratic

widespread: 1. able to be found in many different locations 2. extensive 3. popular 4. occupying a wide space

willful: 1. intentional 2. done on purpose, especially with the intention of causing harm 3. deliberate 4. stubborn

wily: 1. cunning 2. capable of deceiving others in order to get what you want 3. clever; sly

winsome: 1. charming and pleasing, often in an innocent or child-like way 2. attractive

wistful: 1. showing longing or sad thinking about the past 2. marked by or inspiring yearning

wry: 1. using or expressing dry humor, often with a touch of irony 2. (of a person's face or features) temporarily twisted in an expression of disgust, disappointment, or annoyance 3. abnormally bent or turned to one side

zeal: great energy, effort, and enthusiasm, as in working for a person, cause, or object

zealot: 1. a fanatically committed person who is uncompromising in pursuit of their religious, political, or other ideals 2. an excessively zealous person; fanatic

zenith: 1. the point in the sky that's directly over one's head 2. the highest point or peak

zephyr: 1. a light breeze, especially one that comes from the west 2. any lightweight, soft or gentle fabric or yarn

The following simple English grammar tips and tricks will help you to learn and memorize English grammar rules and speak correctly. If you are on this site for English grammar practice, these tips will really help you. Let's start.

Invest your time in learning

It surely takes some time to learn English. There is no shortcut way to learn it. Some websites may say that they will teach you English in seven days or one month. These are false offers. Invest some time in learning and practicing. Your English skills will surely improve.

Speak, speak, and speak!

Try to speak English the same way you write it. Do not worry about grammatical mistakes. The more you practice, the less mistakes you will make and the more fluent you will be. So, practice daily and do not be afraid of grammatical errors.

Slow down your speaking speed

Your confidence will go down if you try to speak fluently from the very beginning. Give yourself some time. Start with slow speaking speed and increase your speed over time as you make more progress day by day. Slowing down speaking speed has another benefit — you will get enough time to make sentences in your mind before you speak.

The more you practice speaking, the more confident you will be.

Use Mobile apps

Luckily, there are many English learning apps available. Some are free and some are paid apps. If you are a smartphone user, you should install some of these apps in your mobile phone. You can at least install one app and start practicing. A mobile app is a very handy and useful thing to learn at your convenient time. You can start with free apps.

Install and use a dictionary app in your mobile

There are several free dictionary apps that will help you to learn proper pronunciation and new words. It is highly possible that your smartphone already has a dictionary installed. Use it or install a better one.

Try to get a good bilingual dictionary for better understanding. Besides using a mobile app, you can buy and use a good bilingual dictionary. A good bilingual dictionary is always a good investment for personal improvement.

Learn English idioms and phrasal verbs

Idioms and phrasal verbs are very common in everyday English conversation. If you do not know them, you may fail to understand the correct meaning of what the other person is saying. So, do not ignore them. Try to learn the most common English idioms and phrasal verbs.

Listen to news bulletins

Almost every radio and television channel broadcasts news bulletins. If you have a smartphone, radio or television, you can listen to these English news bulletins. Besides learning the correct pronunciation, you can learn correct English. Listening to these bulletins will also improve your fluency. This is a common technique used by English learners.

Read out loud

How does your English sound? The pronunciation style of some people is very bad. But there is a simple and easy way to fix improve pronunciation. Take a newspaper or any other script written in English and read out loud. This way you can hear and test your own pronunciation. If you are not happy with your own pronunciation, keep practicing and your English pronunciation will surely improve.

Learn new words daily

The more words you learn, the better you can understand English and express yourself. You may be surprised to know that learning only the basic words can help you to speak English that is used in communication everyday.

Learn sentences

Besides learning common words, try learning common sentences used in everyday English communication. This will give you a huge boost in your learning efforts.

Write every day

When you write, do not be shy of your mistakes. Try to write at least a few paragraphs, ideally at least one page. It is a great practice to use your newly learned words and practice grammar. This will also improve your writing skills.

Watch English movies

These movies will help you to learn proper pronunciation and improve your understanding of English. When you see how native English speakers speak English, your mind will automatically start copying the style. You can try to speak like them at home to understand the quality of your pronunciation and fluency.

Language swap

There are several websites where you can find people who are native English speakers and want to help your learn English if you teach them your language. This is free and can be a great way to learn from native speakers. Many learners are using this method and you should give a try.

Go to a mentor

A mentor can help you to guide in the right direction. She can measure your progress and suggest whatever you need to improve. You can regularly discuss about your improvement and weakness with your mentor. Oftentimes, she can help you. Your mentor can be someone who is good at English. She can be your school / college / university teacher, your friend or any person good at English.

Try to correct your mistakes

It is common to make mistakes. Every time you make a mistake, write it in a separate piece of paper. Make a list of mistakes. Check your mistakes from time to time and try not to make these mistakes again when you practice. These mistakes are clear and good indications of your weakness in English.

Give yourself time to think

Whenever you make a mistake, you should think how you can avoid this mistake from next time. Take time and assess your progress and weakness.

Be an advance learner

Try to learn advance English grammatical rules and vocabulary. Never be happy with your progress. The more you learn and practice, the better English skills you achieve.

Start with "Tense"

There are mainly three types of tense - past, present and future. Usually, verbs indicate the correct form of each tense. Besides learning tense, you should memorize some verbs too. Do not worry. It is interesting and easy to learn the necessary verbs.

Learn common pronoun usage

Do you know the difference between the common subject pronouns and object pronouns such as I/me, we/us, he/him, she/her, they/them?

We use subject pronouns such as I, we, he she, they when the subject is doing an action. Usually, we use subject pronouns at the beginning of a sentence. Example: I cannot remember the story.

But we do not start a sentence with object pronouns such as me, us, him, her, them. Example: Call him.

Active voice and passive voice

Many English learning students get confused here. In active voice, the subject performs an action. In passive voice, the subject and the object of a sentence swap to form the correct sentence.

Incorrect: The cinema was gone to by me.

Correct: The cinema was enjoyed by me.

Prepositions

A preposition defines the relationship between an object and its surroundings. Without the proper use of prepositions, your English will sound weird. Luckily, there are only a handful of prepositions and these are easy to learn.

Learning new words can be a matter of fun but you need to follow some effective methods to learn new words faster. Read them all in the list below.

Read, read, and read

You will find many new words that you need to learn in novels and literary works. You will be most benefited if you read classic literary books. You should also read magazines and newspapers because these are also good sources of new words that you need to learn. These sources often use high quality English that often contain both common and advance words.

Vocabulary wordbooks

In the bookshops, you will find vocabulary wordbooks that range from beginner to advance levels. You can buy one or more depending on your requirements. These books make it a lot easier to learn because these books come with a complete list of words that is suitable for your level.

Use a journal

During your learning time, you will surely find new words. Add them in your journal. This list will slowly grow. But this journal will help you to measure your progress and show where you need to improve. The journal can inspire you to learn more and faster if you find that you are going slow.

Learn some new words everyday

It is easier and more realistic to digest some new words everyday. If you are determined to learn some new words everyday, you will be surprised and happy to see your progress after a month. The progress will surely motivate you to keep using this learning method.

Use flashcards

Using flashcards is a common way to learn new words. You maybe know that you can buy flashcards from bookshops. Some learners find it easier to learn new words with flashcards. You should give a try too.

Set a target

Set a target that is achievable and realistic. Whatever happens, try to achieve your target at any cost.

Look up new words

Have you found a new word? Get in the habit of looking up words you do not know and immediately do this. If you leave it for later, you may completely forget about it and miss the chance to learn it. A quick way is to look the words in the dictionary installed or available in your smartphone. Another alternative is — look up the word on a search engine like Google.com and you will find the meaning of your desired word in several high quality websites.

Play some word games

If you search online, you can find several word learning games. Some of these games are developed in such a fun and entertaining way that you will not get bored even if you use them hours after hours. These games are not hard to find out. Vocabulary learners usually learn using crossword puzzles, anagrams, word jumble, Scrabble, and Boggle. You can try one of them or all of them.

Use your newly learned words

Take a piece of paper and make one or more sentences for every word you just learned. This way every word will be more memorable. It can take some time but it definitely has its benefits.

Engage in conversations

When you engage in conversation, use your newly learned vocabulary. It can be interesting because the other person will be surprised to see your improved vocabulary power / skills. Besides, you will be able to express / communicate in a better way.

Take vocabulary tests

There are several websites that give you free access to their website so that you can test your vocabulary. This website also helps you to test your SAT vocabulary, GRE vocabulary, IELTS vocabulary, TOEFL vocabulary, ACT vocabulary, TOEIC vocabulary, GMAT vocabulary, PTE vocabulary, ECPE vocabulary, MELAB vocabulary, MCAT vocabulary, and PCAT vocabulary.