PTE Vocabulary - The Complete Vocabulary List

abandon: 1. a lack of control or restraint 2. loss of inhibitions 3. exuberance 4. surrender to one's natural impulses

abbreviation: 1. a shortened form of a name, phrase or word 2. the act of shortening something

ability: 1. the capacity to do something 2. a skill or talent in a specific area

abnormal: 1. strange 2. not usual or typical 3. not what is considered to be normal

abolish: 1. to get rid of in an official way 2. to put an end to 3. to completely destroy

abridge: 1. to make something shorter while keeping the same meaning 2. to condense 3. to reduce

abrupt: 1. brusque or curt in behavior or speech 2. unexpected or sudden, most often in an unpleasant or shocking way 3. steep

absorb: 1. to incorporate something 2. to soak up or suck up something 3. to gradually take something in

abstract: 1. not concrete; not related to a physical object or real event 2. expressing or showing feelings instead of real objects or people 3. difficult to understand because of its complexity 4. theoretical

abundance: 1. an extremely large quantity of something 2. a quantity that is considered to be more than enough

academic: 1. related to school or scholarly subjects 2. theoretical; not practical 3. scholarly; good at studying

accelerate: 1. to speed up 2. to go faster 3. to make something happen or to happen at a quicker rate than normal

access: 1. a way of entering or exiting a place 2. the right or permission to use, approach, or enter something or somewhere 3. the act of approaching

accessory: 1. an object that is added to another in order to make it more useful or attractive 2. a person that helps another person commit a crime, but who does not actually take part in the crime

accommodate: 1. to do a favor or oblige someone 2. to supply 3. to provide space for people to stay or to be 4. to adapt or to make suitable

accommodation: 1. lodgings used for travelers 2. a place to stay or live

accompaniment: 1. something that accompanies something or someone else 2. music that accompanies a singer or the main tune

accompany: 1. to go along with 2. to be associated with 3. to go somewhere with someone

accomplishment: 1. fulfillment, success or achievement 2. something that was done successfully

accord: concurrence of opinions or wills

account: 1. an explanation or description of a specific event or situation 2. a narrative 3. the reasons behind a specific event or action

accumulate: 1. to collect or gather 2. to amass 3. to increase in quantity or amount

accumulation: 1. the act of growing or increasing in amount over an extended period of time 2. agglomeration

accurate: 1. meticulous or giving careful consideration to the details 2. exact 3. free from errors and mistakes

achieve: 1. to accomplish 2. to reach something through hard work 3. to succeed

acquire: 1. to obtain 2. to purchase 3. to develop or learn a habit or skill 4. to pinpoint and hold a target or something else through the use of radar or another tracking device

acquisition: 1. the act of getting something or gaining possession of a skill or a good 2. something that one gets or gains possession of

adapt: 1. to make changes in order to fit a specific situation or purpose 2. to modify 3. to alter something

adaptation: 1. the act of modifying something so that it better fits one's needs 2. change; adjustment

adept: highly skilled or proficient at doing something; expert

adequate: 1. sufficient to fit the requirements or needs 2. good enough, but not excessively good 3. satisfactory

adjacent: 1. near 2. close to 3. neighboring 4. touching

adjust: 1. to make changes to 2. to settle or adapt to a situation

adjustment: 1. a change or modification that makes something more suitable or accurate for the person or situation 2. an adaptation

administrate: 1. to direct or manage 2. to control 3. to distribute or give out

administration: 1. a person or group that governs or manages a particular organization 2. the act of controlling a particular organization, group or plan

advocate: 1. publicly speak, write, plead, recommend, support or argue for a cause, particular policy or way of doing things 2. a person who publicly speaks, writes, pleads, recommends, supports or argues for a cause, particular policy or way of doing things

aesthetic: 1. relating to beauty or the study or appreciation of beauty or good taste 2. nice to look at

affect: 1. to impact someone emotionally or mentally 2. to produce a change in

aggregate: 1. to collect or bring together 2. to add amounts together

aid: 1. help; assistance 2. a person who helps someone or something 3. a helpful device

albeit: 1. although 2. even if 3. notwithstanding

alleviate: 1. to make something more bearable or relieve problems or pain 2. to make something less severe or easier

allocate: divide and give out (something) for a particular purpose

aloof: 1. unfriendly or unwilling to interact with others 2. distant 3. uninvolved

alter: 1. to change or modify 2. to make something different 3. to castrate or spay an animal

alternative: 1. not traditional or usual 2. being a choice; offering a choice 3. existing outside traditional society

ambiguity: 1. the state of being unclear, inexact and open to more than one possible interpretation 2. doubtfulness

ambiguous: 1. not expressed or understood clearly 2. open to or having several possible meanings or interpretations

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amend: 1. to make changes to 2. to improve 3. to alter 4. to remove errors from

amendment: 1. a change that is made to something, such as a law, an agreement or any other document 2. a minor change or addition to something

analogous: 1. similar to 2. alike or related in a way that allows analogies to be drawn

analogy: 1. a comparison designed to show that two or more things are similar 2. partial resemblance 3. comparability

analyse: 1. to examine something critically 2. to separate something into its parts in order to examine it or better understand it 3. to psychoanalyze

analysis: 1. the study or examination of something in an attempt to define it or understand it 2. investigation 3. the act of breaking a subject down into parts to study it

anecdote: a short, often funny story, especially about something some happening, usually personal or biographical

annex: 1. to take control or possession over a piece of land without permission and often by the use of force 2. to add or attach 3.

annual: 1. occurring each year 2. payable on a yearly basis or calculated over a year 3. yearly

antagonism: 1. unfriendliness or opposition 2. a strong feeling of dislike or hatred towards someone

anthology: 1. a book that contains many different selections, often from various authors 2. a collection of music or different works of art

anthropology: the study of human races, origins, societies, beliefs, cultures, and its physical development

anticipate: 1. to predict or foresee 2. to look forward to something 3. to prepare for something or deal with something before it happens

apparent: 1. clear and able to be seen 2. obvious; evident 3. easily understood

append: 1. to attach something; to affix 2. to add something to a written work such as a letter or a book

appendix: 1. additional material that is found at the end of a book, an essay or another written piece 2. added information

appreciate: 1. to become more valuable or increase in worth 2. to be grateful or thankful for 3. to understand the true meaning of a situation

appreciation: 1. an increase in value 2. the act of recognizing something's quality, worth, validity, merit, etc. 3. an expression of thanks or gratitude 4. judgment

approach: to move nearer

appropriate: 1. to take possession or control of something 2. to steal 3. to set aside or to devote to a specific purpose

approximate: 1. to come close to something 2. to be similar to something 3. to get near

apt: 1. exactly suitable; appropriate 2. likely to do something; having a tendency to do something 3. quick to learn or understand

arbitrary: 1. determined in a random way 2. based on preference rather than logic

archaic: 1. antiquated 2. belonging to a time in the past 3. old-fashioned

archives: 1. a group of documents with some sort of historical or informational value 2. the place where these documents are kept

area: 1. a geographical region 2. part of a surface or space 3. a subject or field of study

articulate: 1. capable of expressing oneself in a clear and coherent manner 2. clear and well formulated language

aspect: 1. a part or quality of something 2. one part of a situation 3. exposure; the way in which a structure is facing

aspire: long, aim, or seek ambitiously to have or achieve something, especially in your career; desire strongly

assemble: 1. to put something together by joining its parts 2. to bring people together into one single group

assembly: 1. a gathering of people that takes place because the people share a common goal or interest; a meeting 2. a gathering of teachers and students where information is shared

assess: 1. to estimate or determine the value of something; to appraise 2. to evaluate

assessment: 1. the act of evaluating and judging something 2. one's judgments or observations about a particular subject

assign: 1. to give or allocate 2. to appoint 3. to designate 4. to attribute

assistance: 1. help or support 2. the act of helping or supporting someone

assume: 1. to believe that something is true without proof 2. to take on a role or responsibility 3. to adopt an idea

assurance: 1. a feeling of confidence in oneself or something else 2. a promise designed to give confidence

asylum: 1. protection, safety, or the right to stay, especially that given by a government to people who has escaped from war or political trouble in their own country 2. an institution for the care of the mentally ill, or of the aged, the poor, etc.

attach: 1. to fasten or join two or more objects 2. to include 3. to add a file to an e-mail

attached: 1. joined or fastened together somehow 2. connected 3. feeling love or attraction for someone

attain: 1. to succeed at something 2. to achieve 3. to reach or arrive at

attribute: 1. a trait or quality 2. a characteristic

augment: 1. to increase something in size, quantity or value 2. to enlarge 3. to enhance

author: 1. the creator of something 2. the person who writes a document 3. the person responsible for an action

authority: 1. power; the ability and right to control 2. the person or group that is in charge of a person, group or region 3. an expert on a specific subject 4. jurisdiction 5. official permission

automate: 1. to mechanize a process, replacing people with machines 2. to operate by automation

available: 1. free and ready to be used; not busy 2. accessible 3. at someone's disposal

aware: 1. cognizant; knowing 2. informed about something 3. conscious of something

behalf: 1. in the interest of 2. on part of 3. supporting 4. representing

beleaguer: 1. to harass or create trouble for 2. to besiege or surround a place, person or group with troops

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belie: 1. give a false representation to; disguise or misrepresent 2. show to be false; contradict; prove false

benefit: 1. an advantage 2. a gift or payment from an employer to an employee 3. a payment from an insurance company or social welfare program 4. something intended to help 5. an event designed to raise money for someone or for a cause

bias: supporting or opposing a particular person or thing in an unfair way, especially in a way considered to be unfair

bond: 1. the link or connection between people or things 2. a written promise 3. a force that unites or pushes people together 4. a certificate of debt issued by a government or company, promising to pay borrowed money back over a specified period of time

boon: 1. a blessing or something helpful 2. a positive result that is gained through having made a request

breach: 1. an act of breaking or failing to follow a law, rule, trust, faith, promise, agreement, or code of conduct 2. a hole, opening or space in a wall, fence, barrier, or line of defense, especially during a military attack

brief: 1. concise 2. short in duration 3. curt 4. scanty

buffet: 1. a table that has food on it, from which diners are expected to choose their own food 2. a meal when diners are expected to choose their own food from a variety of selections 3. a blow or a strike, usually from a hand

bulk: 1. the size or mass of something 2. the largest portion or part of something 3. great in quantity

buoyant: 1. able to float 2. cheerful and optimistic

bureaucracy: 1. a large government or administration that is divided into various departments, in which the officials must follow a set of inflexible rules 2. a complicated management system which requires compliance with an annoying set of rules or regulations

burgeon: 1. grow, increase, expand or develop quickly 2. begin to grow or blossom (as buds or branches)

capable: 1. able to do something 2. quite good at a certain task; skilled

capacity: 1. the ability to do something 2. the maximum number of things that a place or object can hold

catalyst: 1. (Chemistry) a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction 2. somebody, something or an event that quickly causes change or action

category: 1. a group of things organized due to the fact that they share a common trait 2. a group or class 3. a division

caustic: 1. capable of burning, corroding, destroying, or eating away by chemical action 2. severely critical or sarcastic, often in a funny or clever way

cease: 1. to stop doing something; to quit 2. to discontinue 3. to come to an end

chagrin: a feeling of being very annoyed, disappointed, or embarrassed because of failure, disappointment, or humiliation

challenge: 1. to question or express objection to 2. to test someone 3. to invite someone to take part in a debate or competition; to dare

channel: 1. a route through which water flows or can flow 2. a television or radio station 3. a course of direction through which actions or ideas pass

chapter: 1. a section of a book or a written work 2. a branch of a society or group 3. a stage in a person's life

chart: 1. a drawing or illustration which displays information in an easy to understand way; a graph 2. a detailed map used for navigation of the sea or air

circumstance: 1. the conditions surrounding an event 2. a factor which influences something

cite: 1. to use information or exact words from another source; to quote 2. to use as an example

civil: 1. not related to the church or military, but rather the ordinary people of a country 2. secular 3. polite or courteous

clarify: 1. to make something clearer or easier to understand 2. to remove ambiguity

clarity: 1. clearness of expression or thought 2. the ability to be understood 3. the ability to think in a clear way

classical: 1. relating to ancient cultures 2. respecting tradition or the original way of doing things 3. traditional

clause: 1. a provision or stipulation in a contract or another formal document 2. a phrase containing a subject and a verb that is part of a larger sentence

coalesce: 1. grow together or into one body 2. unite or merge into a single body, group, or mass

code: 1. a rule or law which governs an organization or a political region 2. a set of words or images which are used to communicate a message in a secret way or in an abbreviated form

coherence: 1. a logical ordering of things 2. consistency 3. the state of being logical

coherent: 1. consistent or logical 2. understandable 3. capable of explaining one's thoughts or ideas in a way that is easily understood 4. unified; sticking together

coincide: 1. to happen at the same time 2. to be present at the same time and place 3. to agree with or be in agreement

collapse: 1. to cave in due to pressure or lack of support 2. to fall down 3. to break down 4. to fold into a smaller or more compact shape, allowing something to be more easily stored

colleague: 1. a coworker 2. someone you work with in the same profession or organization

commence: 1. to start; to begin 2. to commence 3. to originate

commission: 1. a fee or payment for goods or services rendered 2. a request to create a specific work for someone 3. a group which studies a certain issue

commitment: 1. one's promise or willingness to do something 2. an obligation, engagement, pledge or understanding

commodity: 1. a product or good that can be bought and sold 2. something useful or of value

communication: 1. the act of transmitting information from one person to another 2. the message that is transmitted

community: 1. a group of people living in the same area or region 2. a group of people who share common interests 3. the greater public

compatible: 1. able to exist in harmony 2. well-suited 3. capable of being mixed

compensate: 1. to pay someone for something that has been lost, damaged, or taken away 2. to make up for something negative 3. to pay someone for their services

compensation: 1. a reward or a payment that is given in exchange for some sort of negative incident

compile: 1. to gather things together 2. to put things together in a logical or orderly form

complement: 1. to go well with something 2. to make perfect; to complete

complex: 1. complicated and not easy to understand 2. involving or made from many different parts

component: 1. one specific part of something 2. an ingredient or element

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compound: 1. to increase 2. to combine 3. to make something worse 4. to pay interest

comprehensive: 1. all-encompassing 2. thorough 3. extensive 4. dealing with most or all aspects of a certain issue

comprise: 1. to be made up of 2. to be composed of 3. to include; to contain

compromise: 1. a settlement of differences by mutual concessions 2. reduce the quality, value, or degree of something 3. endanger the interests or reputation of

compute: 1. to calculate 2. to determine by using a calculator or computer

conceive: 1. to draw up or think up a plan 2. to get pregnant 3. to invent something

concept: 1. an idea or a notion 2. a plan 3. an experimental model for a future product

concise: 1. expressed in few words 2. clear and succinct 3. brief yet clear

conclude: 1. to finish 2. to terminate or cause something to come to an end 3. to deduce or to infer based on what one has seen or heard

concurrent: 1. contemporary 2. happening or existing at the same time 3. simultaneous

conduct: to lead or guide

confer: 1. to grant something, like a title, to someone 2. to discuss or exchange opinions

conference: 1. a meeting of people who share a similar interest attend a variety of talks or sessions about a specific subject or topic 2. a meeting

confine: 1. to limit or restrict 2. to forcibly keep someone or something in a certain place; to imprison

confirmed: 1. firmly settled in a habit 2. established 3. unlikely to change

conflict: 1. a fight or a disagreement between two or more parties 2. a struggle 3. an incompatibility

confluence: 1. a place where two rivers or streams join to become one 2. a coming together of people or things

conform: 1. to meet (standards) 2. to comply with 3. to be similar to 4. to behave in a way that is expected and acceptable

conformity: 1. agreement or compliance with a particular subject or issue 2. behavior that displays compliance with socially accepted rules or norms

congenial: 1. (of a person) agreeable, suitable, or pleasing in nature or character 2. (of a thing) pleasant or agreeable because suited to or adapted in one's spirit, feeling, temper, etc.; compatible

conscientious: 1. controlled by or done according to, what one knows is right 2. working hard and careful to do things well

consensus: 1. majority opinion 2. an opinion or decision reached by all, or nearly all, members of a group 3. a general agreement

consent: 1. to allow or agree with 2. to grant permission 3. to approve

consequent: 1. resulting 2. following 3. progressing logically

considerable: 1. quite large; substantial 2. worthy of recognition or consideration 3. noteworthy

consist: 1. to be composed of 2. to be inherent 3. to be compatible

consistent: 1. regular 2. not changing over time 3. constantly acting or behaving the same way

conspicuous: 1. obvious; easily noticed 2. attracting attention, especially because it is strange or unusual

constant: 1. unchanging 2. firm or resolute 3. persistent; continuing over a long period of time 4. loyal

constitute: 1. to formally set up or establish 2. to appoint someone to a position 3. to be the same as or equivalent to

constitutional: 1. permitted by the constitution of a country, group or business 2. related to the constitution of a country, group or business

constrain: 1. to keep back; to confine 2. to restrain; to limit 3. to force; to oblige

construct: 1. to create or to form 2. to build; to put pieces together to form a whole object 3. to combine smaller pieces to develop something new

construction: 1. the act or business of building things, especially structures

consume: 1. to eat 2. to use; to use up 3. to totally destroy

consumer: 1. a person who purchases goods or services

contact: 1. to communicate with someone over the phone or by writing a letter, e-mail or text message

contemporary: 1. from or existing in the same time period 2. modern

context: 1. the circumstances surrounding something 2. the words before and after something that help explain what it means 3. the circumstances or situation in which something happens, which help to explain it

contract: 1. to get smaller; to shrink 2. to make smaller 3. to hire someone to work under a contract 4. to get

contradict: 1. to make a statement that goes against what has been expressed by another 2. to deny 3. to disagree with something

contradiction: 1. a difference between two or more messages or statements which shows that one of the statements must be wrong 2. an inconsistency

contrary: 1. opposite or completely different 2. obstinate 3. unfavorable

contrast: 1. the act of finding differences between two or more things 2. a difference between two or more things

contribute: 1. to write for a newspaper or a magazine 2. to give goods, money or time and effort to a person or group in order to help them

contribution: 1. something one gives or does in order to help reach a shared achievement 2. a donation 3. a specific tax payment

controversy: 1. a disagreement or dispute over a specific subject about which people have differing opinions 2. a heated discussion or argument

convene: 1. to bring people together for a formal or official purpose such as a meeting 2. to gather

convention: 1. a formal political agreement 2. a gathering or meeting of people or professionals with a shared interest 3. a social custom

conventional: 1. traditional 2. based on what is considered to be traditional or typical 3. common 4. related to or based on a convention or an agreement

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converse: 1. to talk with a person or a group of people 2. to have a conversation

conversely: 1. reciprocally 2. in a contrary manner

convert: 1. to change something; to transform 2. to undergo a change 3. to change to another religion

convinced: 1. very sure 2. persuaded 3. certain

cooperative: 1. done with others 2. willing to work with others

coordinate: 1. to harmonize 2. to make two or more things work well or efficiently together 3. to match

coordination: 1. the act of making various parts work together in one organized or harmonious way

core: 1. the center of something 2. the most important or essential part of something

corporate: 1. belonging or pertaining to a large company or corporation 2. common or shared between people or a group of people

correspond: 1. to communicate through messages, letters or e-mails 2. to be related to or quite similar to

corresponding: 1. related to 2. comparable 3. matching 4. directly related

cosmopolitan: 1. common to or representative of all or many different countries and cultures 2. containing or having experience of many different countries and cultures 3. including people from many different countries 4. free from local or national habits or prejudice

counterfeit: 1. to forge a copy of something, often for illegal or dishonest reasons 2. to create a high-quality copy of something with the intention of defrauding someone

couple: 1. two people who are romantically involved 2. two similar or equal things

create: 1. to invent something; to develop something new 2. to cause or bring about

credible: 1. trustworthy 2. easy to believe or convincing 3. reliable

credit: 1. money that is given to someone with the understanding that it will be paid back with interest 2. recognition or praise

criteria: 1. the standards or rules on which something is judged or based

crucial: 1. of the utmost importance 2. extremely important 3. decisive

culture: 1. behaviors, beliefs, and standards that are shared between one large group of people or a society 2. art, such as music, literature, dance, theater, etc.

cumulative: 1. increasing due to the constant addition of other elements 2. gradually increasing 3. snowballing

currency: 1. money; any other medium of exchange

curtail: 1. to reduce or shorten something 2. to establish a limit on something 3. to abridge

cycle: 1. an extended period of time 2. a bi- or tri- cycle 3. a series of events which repeat over time

data: 1. information, facts or figures about a specific subject that is often used to make a decision 2. information used by a computer

dearth: a lack of something or an inadequate supply

debate: 1. a civil or controlled argument between two or more people or groups with opposing viewpoints 2. a formal discussion before a vote 3. discussion

decade: 1. a period of ten years 2. any series or group of ten

decline: 1. a fall in the number of something; a reduction 2. the act of reducing in number 3. a downward slope

deduce: 1. to reach a conclusion based on the facts available 2. to infer

defile: 1. to spoil something by making it less pure; to corrupt 2. to pollute or make something dirty

definite: 1. exact 2. clear 3. undeniable 4. certain and unlikely to change

definition: 1. a clear outline of something 2. the meaning of a word or phrase

deliberate: 1. to carefully debate or think about something serious 2. to thoughtfully weigh the available options

demonstrate: 1. to deliberately show or prove 2. to make clear

denote: 1. to be a name or symbol for 2. to indicate 3. to mean; to symbolize

denounce: 1. to condemn or accuse something or someone, often in a formal manner 2. to strongly and publicly criticize someone or something

deny: 1. to say that something is not true 2. to claim one is not guilty of something; to not admit 3. to not let someone have something

depict: 1. show (someone or something) in a picture, drawing, painting, photograph, etc. 2. describe (someone or something) using words, a story, etc.

deplete: 1. to cause a great reduction in the fullness or size of 2. to use up 3. to decrease the number of something

deplore: 1. to believe something is wrong or bad 2. to lament; to regret 3. to feel great sadness about

depreciation: 1. decrease in value due to age, wear, decay, market conditions, etc. 2. a decrease in the purchasing or exchange value of money 3. an instance of disparaging or belittlement

depress: 1. to press or force down 2. to make someone feel quite sad 3. to weaken 4. to lower the amount of something

depression: 1. extreme sadness 2. a dip in a surface 3. a severe recession in an economy

derivative: 1. developed from, based on, influenced by, or copied something else; derived 2. copied or adapted from others; not original; secondary

derive: 1. to get something from a source 2. to deduce 3. to show or trace the origin of

design: 1. a sketch or a plan that shows what something will be like when it is produced or constructed 2. a pattern or plan

despite: 1. hatred or malice 2. injury

detect: 1. to note or to feel something 2. to discover or catch 3. to note the presence of

deter: 1. to discourage or keep someone from doing something 2. to make someone decide not to do something by making them fear the consequences or repercussions

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deteriorate: 1. to get or become worse 2. to depreciate 3. to disintegrate over time

detrimental: 1. causing damage or injury 2. harmful

deviate: 1. to stray from the established course or standards 2. to digress

device: 1. a contraption used to perform specific tasks 2. an explosive, like a bomb 3. a method used to do something

devoid: completely lacking something that is necessary or usual; destitute or empty (usually followed by of = devoid of)

devote: 1. to dedicate time or resources to something 2. to set apart

differentiate: 1. to determine or recognize the difference between two or more things; to distinguish 2. to make one thing unlike another

diffuse: 1. pour out and cause to spread freely, as a fluid 2. spread or scatter over a wide area widely or thinly; disseminate; dispersed; not concentrated in one area 3. spread among a large group of people 4. cause (light) to spread evenly to reduce glare

dilemma: 1. a serious problem 2. a situation in which a difficult decision must be made

diligent: steady, hard-working, and careful in one's work or duties; industrious; painstaking

diminish: 1. to reduce or make smaller 2. to become smaller or less

discern: 1. see, recognize, find out, or understand something that is far away or not very clear 2. perceive or recognize (someone or something) with difficulty by the sight or some other sense 3. come to know, recognize, or distinguish mentally

discord: 1. disagreement among people or things 2. dispute or strife 3. a lack of harmony

discrepancy: 1. a difference or variation between things that should be identical 2. inconsistency 3. disagreement

discrete: 1. distinct 2. separate 3. not continuous

discretion: 1. the ability to judge people or situations wisely and make the right choices 2. the ability to behave in a way that does not cause offense

discriminate: 1. to treat someone or a group of people differently due to their origin, race, sex or other trait 2. to distinguish or see the difference between things

disdain: the feeling of not liking someone or something and thinking that they are not important and do not deserve any interest, respect, notice, response, etc.

dispel: 1. make (a doubt, fear, belief, feeling, or idea) go away or end, usually by proving them wrong or unnecessary 2. drive away or off in various directions; disperse; dissipate

displace: 1. to force someone or something out of its proper place or position 2. to take over for 3. to remove

displacement: 1. the act of removing someone or something from the place it held or lived previously

display: 1. to show or present 2. to demonstrate 3. to reveal

dispose: 1. to get rid of or throw away 2. to make someone feel a certain way 3. to arrange

distinct: 1. different or separate 2. unmistakable; obvious

distinction: 1. honor or excellence 2. something that makes a person or a thing different from the rest

distort: 1. to misrepresent or give false information 2. to change something so that it is no longer the way it originally was

distribute: 1. to give out or hand out 2. to spread something out over a surface 3. to deliver products

distribution: 1. the act of giving something out to people 2. the way in which something is distributed or spread out over an area

divergent: 1. tending to split and move out in different directions from a single point; diverging 2. be or become different

diverse: 1. possessing various characteristics 2. distinct 3. diversified

diversity: 1. difference or variety 2. the state of having people from different races and cultures gathered together in one space or organization

divert: 1. to distract 2. to make something move in a different direction or on a different course 3. to use for a different purpose than the original 4. to amuse or entertain

doctrine: 1. a belief or set of beliefs that are taught and accepted by a religious, political, scientific, or other group; dogma 2. a statement of official government policy, especially in foreign or military affairs

document: 1. to record something on paper or in digital format 2. to provide written evidence

dogged: marked by stubborn determination and persistent in effort to do or get something and continuing to try despite difficulties

domain: 1. territory 2. field of activity or study 3. a set or group of websites that share the same suffix such as .net .org etc.

domestic: 1. related to house, home or family 2. from one's own country

dominant: 1. governing; ruling; exercising one's control 2. more important than similar things 3. commanding

dominate: 1. to be very good at something 2. to command; to have power over 3. to be the most important or largest thing in a group

dormant: 1. sleeping, lying asleep or as if asleep; inactive 2. not active or developing now, but it may become active or develop in the future 3. in a state of rest or inactivity; inoperative

draft: 1. the first draft or copy of something 2. a sketch 3. a rush of air through a building or space

dramatic: 1. sensational 2. pronounced 3. extremely sudden 4. extreme

dubious: 1. doubtful 2. questionable 3. not totally good or honest 4. undecided

duration: 1. the amount of time that something lasts

dynamic: 1. full of energy; enthusiastic 2. constantly changing 3. relating to energy or physical forces

eccentric: 1. strange 2. unusual 3. unconventional and deviating from what is considered to be "normal" behavior

eclectic: 1. selecting or choosing from various sources, systems, or styles 2. made up of or combining elements from a variety of sources

economic: 1. cheap 2. pertaining to the economy of a country or region 3. related to the system of buying and selling goods and services

edit: 1. to revise a document and change whatever errors one sees 2. to produce a book or document by gathering different works together

edition: 1. a group of a publications that were published at the same time 2. a specific version or a book or a product

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elated: 1. very happy and excited; exultantly proud and joyful; overjoyed 2. make very proud, happy, or joyful

elicit: 1. evoke or draw out (a response, information, etc.) from someone 2. draw out or entice forth; bring to light

eliminate: 1. to get rid of 2. to abolish 3. to remove

eloquent: 1. persuasive in speaking or writing 2. characterized by fluent and persuasive speech 3. movingly or vividly expressive

elusive: 1. difficult to describe, find, catch, achieve, understand, or remember 2. cleverly or skillfully evasive

emerge: 1. to appear 2. to come into view 3. to become known 4. to come into existence

emphasis: 1. the importance that is specifically placed on something 2. stress

empirical: relying on or derived from observation or experiment rather than theory or pure logic

enable: 1. to make someone able to do something 2. to give someone the tools or resources to do something 3. to allow someone to do something

endorse: 1. to publicly declare one's support for something 2. to acknowledge a document by signing it

endurance: 1. the ability or power to withstand stress or an unpleasant situation 2. the act of persevering 3. duration

energy: 1. the effort or power needed to do something 2. heat, electricity, light or the resources used to produce power

enforce: 1. to make someone comply with a law or a rule 2. to cause or force something

engage: to occupy the attention

enhance: intensify, increase, or improve the quality, amount, extent, or strength of something, as in cost, value, attractiveness, effectiveness, etc.

enormous: 1. extremely large in size or quantity 2. massive

ensure: 1. to make sure that something happens or happened 2. to guarantee 3. to secure or make safe

entity: 1. an individual, complete, unit that possesses its own unique characteristics 2. a being

environment: 1. all of the conditions and circumstances that surround a specific person, animal or thing 2. the surroundings

ephemeral: lasting for only a very short time

equate: 1. to equalize 2. to make two or more things equal 3. to consider things equal

equation: 1. a math problem 2. the act of considering one thing to be the same as another

equip: 1. to give someone the tools or skills necessary to perform a job 2. to dress

equipment: 1. supplies or tools needed to complete a task

equitable: dealing fairly and equally with everyone; just and impartial

equivalent: 1. equal to 2. of the same amount, size, value, meaning

equivocal: 1. not clear and seeming to have two or more possible opposing meanings 2. ambiguous

erode: 1. to eat away or wear away something 2. to slowly deteriorate 3. to reduce something

erosion: 1. the gradual corroding or eating away of a subject 2. deterioration

erratic: 1. irregular in movement or behavior 2. not following a regular pattern 3. not doing what is expected

estate: 1. a rather large piece of property 2. all of one's possessions at death

estimate: 1. to make a guess or calculate the amount or value of something 2. to judge

ethic: 1. a belief or set of beliefs which affects one's behavior 2. a person's moral principles or standards

ethnic: 1. of or relating to a specific group of people who share a common race, heritage, set of customs or traditions

evacuate: 1. to empty something out 2. to make people move out of or away from an area that is in danger 3. to remove or discharge

evaluate: 1. to judge 2. to closely examine something before determining its value

eventual: 1. happening at a time in the future that has not been specified

eventually: 1. in the end 2. at an unspecified time in the future 3. finally

evidence: 1. material that shows someone is innocent or guilty of something 2. material that proves something

evident: clearly and easily seen or understood

evoke: 1. bring (a memory, feeling, image, etc.) into the mind 2. bring out; arouse; call forth

evolution: 1. gradual development or change, especially over long periods of time

evolve: 1. to grow 2. to develop gradually over an extended period of time 3. to go through evolutionary changes

exacerbate: increase the severity, violence, or bitterness of (disease, pain, annoyance, etc.)

excavate: 1. dig a large hole or channel in the ground, especially with a machine 2. uncover or expose by digging; unearth 3. dig out and remove (earth, soil, etc.) 4. form (a hole, tunnel, etc.) by digging

exceed: 1. to surpass 2. to go beyond 3. to be greater than

exclude: 1. to leave someone or something out 2. to eject 3. to deliberately not include 4. to prevent

exemplify: 1. to serve as a typical example of 2. to use an example to illustrate or clarify 2. to embody

exhibit: 1. to display or show 2. to present to the public 3. to reveal

exhort: strongly encourage or urge (someone) to do something by strong, often stirring argument, admonition, advice, or appeal; admonish strongly

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exorbitant: going far beyond what is reasonable, fair, expected, just, proper, or usual, especially of a price or amount charged

expand: 1. to add details or information 2. to grow larger 3. to cause growth or to make larger

expansion: 1. growth 2. the act or process of getting larger 3. an increase in size or number

expedient: helpful or useful in a particular situation and produces an immediate result or solution to a problem, even though possibly improper or immoral

expert: 1. a person who has a great deal of knowledge about or skill in a specific subject

explicit: fully and clearly expressed or demonstrated, leaving no room for confusion or doubt

exploit: 1. to take advantage of 2. to make use of

exploitation: 1. selfish utilization of someone's work 2. abuse of someone in order to gain advantage

export: 1. to sell or send abroad 2. to introduce or transmit an idea from one country into another

exposition: 1. a show where works of art are displayed for the public to contemplate 2. a clear, detailed, easy to understand explanation 3. a show in which many objects that are for sale are displayed

exposure: 1. the disclosure or revealing of something 2. the state of having no protection from the elements or other harmful agents

external: 1. from or located out the outside; outer 2. coming from the outside or an outside source 3. peripheral

extract: 1. to remove or pull something out of another source 2. to convince a person to give you something they don't want to give you, often through the use of force

fabricate: 1. to create 2. to manufacture 3. to build

facilitate: 1. to help make something happen 2. to assist 3. to make something easier

faction: 1. a small group within a larger group, usually contentious minority within a larger group 2. conflict within an organization or nation; internal dissension

factor: 1. a variable or an element 2. something that influences a result

fallacy: 1. a mistaken belief that a lot of people think is true but is in fact false 2. (logic) a mistake or failure in reasoning that makes an argument or idea invalid 3. a misleading or unsound argument 4. deceptive, misleading, or false nature

falter: 1. to move or speak in an unsteady, awkward manner 2. to stop doing something, even for just a moment 3. to lose strength

fanatical: 1. too enthusiastic 2. unreasonably zealous about something 3. extreme in one's beliefs or activities

fastidious: 1. very attentive to small details and wanting everything to be correct and perfect 2. difficult to please; exacting 3. wanting (clothes, possessions, and property) to always be clean, neat, etc.

fatuous: 1. something or someone that is silly, foolish or pointless

feasible: 1. achievable 2. capable of being done or accomplished 3. possible 4. likely

feature: 1. a part or aspect of something 2. a quality

federal: 1. related to the central or national government 2. related to the system of federalism, a system in which states or provinces and central governments share power

fervent: 1. having or showing great warmth or intensity of spirit, feeling, enthusiasm, etc. 2. hot; boiling; burning; glowing

fickle: 1. likely to change one's opinion; not constant 2. unstable; frequently changing

file: 1. to cut away using a file 2. to put in order; to arrange 3. to submit or send a document 4. to walk in a line

final: 1. last; concluding 2. ultimate 3. coming at the end

finance: 1. money that is used to pay for a large and expensive project 2. the money that a person, company or nation has 3. the management of money

financial: 1. related to money or finance

finite: 1. limited 2. measurable 3. having an end

flaunt: 1. to show something, like a personal quality, wanting to get admiration from others 2. to flaunt something

flexibility: 1. the ability or willingness to make changes 2. easily bent 3. adaptability

flexible: 1. pliable; capable of being manipulated 2. able to change or be modified 3. able to be bent

fluctuate: 1. to constantly undergo changes 2. to undulate 3. to shift back and forth; to rise and fall

focus: 1. the center point of something 2. the center of attention 3. the main point

format: 1. to arrange a document in a specific way 2. to prepare a computer disk to save specific files

formula: 1. a fixed or standard way of doing something 2. mathematical symbols that express a rule or a fact

forthcoming: 1. upcoming; approaching 2. appearing shortly 3. helpful; collaborative

fortuitous: 1. happening by accident or chance rather than intention, especially in a way that is lucky or convenient 2. lucky; fortunate

foundation: 1. the base on which something is built 2. an organization that deals with social issues or projects 3. the underlying principle or basis

framework: 1. the basic structure for something 2. something's skeleton 3. a set of rules around which something is done

fraught: filled, charged, or loaded (with), especially unpleasant or undesirable things such as problems, difficulties, or things that are confusing

frugal: 1. sparing or economical in use or expenditure; not wasteful; not spending freely or unnecessarily 2. simple, cheap, and not very big

function: 1. a duty or an activity that one must perform 2. a formal event 3. a purpose

fundamental: 1. essential 2. of great importance 3. basic

furthermore: 1. in addition 2. moreover 3. besides 4. additionally

gallant: 1. (of a person or their behavior) brave and noble; high-spirited and daring 2. (of a man) courteously attentive especially to women; chivalrous; flirtatious 3. showy, colorful, or stylish, as in dress or manner; splendid; magnificent; well-dressed

gaunt: 1. extremely thin due to illness or hunger 2. empty or barren 3. dreary

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gender: 1. one's sex or sexual identity 2. all members of a specific sex

generate: 1. to create or bring about 2. to produce 3. to produce energy, like electricity

generation: 1. a group of people in a society or in a family that were born in the same general age 2. a period of around thirty years in which people are born, grow up, and have babies of their own

genial: 1. cheerful, friendly, and sympathetic; amiable 2. (of air or climate) pleasantly mild and warm; favorable for life, growth, or comfort

global: 1. world-wide 2. found around the world 3. comprehensive

globe: 1. a spherical shape; a ball 2. a map of the world which is printed on a sphere 3. the earth

goad: 1. to provoke someone 2. to urge someone on 3. to tease or incite a person or an animal

grade: 1. a level or rank 2. a number or letter that indicates the quality of something

grate: 1. to shred something, such as cheese 2. to persistently annoy 3. to produce an annoying sound through friction

gravity: 1. the force that pulls matter toward a center of attraction; the force that pulls matter to the ground 2. seriousness or solemnity

guarantee: 1. the promise that something will happen or that something is true 2. an assurance

guideline: 1. a rule or benchmark 2. information tells people how something should be done

hardy: 1. capable of enduring extreme conditions or difficult situations; robust 2. bold or daring; courageous 3. brazenly daring; audacious 4. (of plants) able to survive outside during winter without protection from the weather

hasten: 1. make something happen sooner or more quickly; speed up; accelerate 2. move or act quickly; hurry 3. cause to hurry

headstrong: 1. stubborn and unwilling to change 2. strong-willed 3. very determined to do what one wishes, despite warnings from others

hence: 1. therefore 2. for this reason 3. from this time 4. from this place

hierarchy: 1. the order of people based on their rank or status 2. a system where people or things are ranked based on their status

highlight: 1. to stress something 2. to make something appear more important 3. to emphasize

hinder: 1. to limit someone's possibilities or the ability to do something 2. to hamper or impede 3. to slow something down

homogeneous: of the same or similar nature or kind

hypothesis: an unproved theory, proposition, supposition, etc. that is made on the basis of limited evidence and not proven but that leads to further study, discussion, or investigation, etc.

identical: 1. exactly alike 2. the same as something else 3. extraordinarily similar

identify: 1. to discover 2. to equate 3. to recognize a person or a problem

ideology: 1. a set of ideas which influence or govern a person or a society

illuminate: 1. to make something brighter; to brighten 2. to explain something in a way that makes it understandable; to instruct

illustrate: 1. to show something or explain, especially by giving examples 2. to draw pictures that are to be used in a book or other written document 3. to represent

image: 1. a picture or a visual representation of something 2. a mental picture of something

immigrate: 1. to enter a foreign country with the purpose of permanently living there

immigration: 1. the act of moving into a new country in order to live there

impact: 1. a collision; the moment when two or more bodies hit 2. the effect that an event has on a person; an influence

implement: 1. to put something in force or into effect 2. to carry out

implicate: 1. to demonstrate, imply or show that a person is involved in something, such as a crime

implicit: 1. not explicitly said or explained; implied 2. suggested

imply: 1. express or indicate (something) indirectly 2. indicate or suggest without saying or showing

impose: 1. to force people to comply with a rule or to accept something 2. to demand

impromptu: 1. done without any planning 2. unrehearsed 3. offhand

incentive: 1. something that motivates people to do something or take action 2. a reward or the threat of punishment that inspires people to act

incidence: 1. the rate or frequency at which something happens 2. occurrence

incipient: 1. just starting 2. in the beginning stages 3. beginning to appear

inclination: 1. a tendency to support something or like something; a preference 2. a slope or angle

incline: 1. to be in favor of something or have a preference 2. to bend or slant 3. to slope

income: 1. money that one receives in exchange for one's work or smart investing 2. revenue 3. a company's profits

incompatible: 1. unable to exist together in harmony or agreement because of basic differences 2. not consistent or able to coexist with (another)

incongruous: 1. inappropriate or not considered to be normal 2. incompatible or inconsistent with the rest of things in its group or time

incorporate: 1. to include something into a larger unit or group 2. to combine

incredulous: 1. unwilling or unable to believe something, and usually showing this; doubting; skeptical 2. showing doubt or disbelief 3. incredible; not easy to be believed

indelible: 1. impossible to remove or forget 2. producing marks that cannot be erased or removed 3. permanent

index: 1. an alphabetical list showing all that is included in a book or a larger document 2. an alphabetical list of the documents in a collection 3. an indication

indicate: 1. to show 2. to be a sign of 3. to signal 4. to suggest

indifferent: 1. not caring about something; apathetic or indifferent 2. impartial 3. unremarkable or average

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indigenous: existing, growing, or produced naturally in a particular place or climate; native

indignant: feeling or showing anger or annoyance at unfair, mean, or ungrateful action or treatment

individual: 1. a single human being 2. a person

induce: 1. persuade or influence someone to do something 2. bring about, produce, or cause 3. draw (a general rule or conclusion) by inductive reasoning

inept: 1. not effective 2. unfit or wrong in an inappropriate way 3. awkward or clumsy

inert: 1. unable to move or act 2. moving or acting very slowly 3. not energetic or interesting

inertia: 1. lack of activity 2. the fact that matter moves in the same direction unless acted upon by another force

inevitably: 1. in a way that isn't preventable 2. not able to be avoided

infer: form an opinion or guess that something is true by reasoning, especially based on known facts, evidence, or premises

infrastructure: 1. the underlying features of something; framework 2. a country's basic systems, such as power, water or transportation

ingenious: clever, resourceful, original, and inventive

inherent: existing in someone or something as a natural and inseparable element, quality, right, or attribute

inhibit: 1. prevent someone from doing what he or she wants to do 2. prevent or slow down the activity, growth or occurrence of (something) 3. restrain, hinder, arrest, or check (an action, impulse, etc.)

initial: 1. first 2. occurring at the beginning of something 3. incipient

initiate: 1. to begin 2. to introduce a person to into a subject or knowledge; to teach someone 3. to formally admit someone into a group

injure: 1. to physically hurt or harm someone or something 2. to offend someone or hurt them mentally or emotionally

injury: 1. physical harm caused by violence or an accident

innovate: 1. to begin to use or to invent new ideas, concepts, products, equipment, etc. 2. to make changes

innovation: 1. the use of something new; a change to a particular process

insert: 1. to put or place something in something else 2. to add something

insight: 1. understanding of a specific theme or topic 2. the ability to clearly understand a difficult or complicated situation or topic

insipid: 1. without flavor; tasteless 2. not interesting or exciting; dull; boring

inspect: 1. to carefully examine something, especially in search of problems or flaws 2. to make an official visit to ensure that rules are being followed or complied with

inspection: 1. the act of examining something by an official or a person who has been specially trained 2. an official or formal review

instance: 1. an occurrence 2. an example used to demonstrate something

institute: 1. an organization that promotes education or art 2. an organization that carries out research 3. an organization with a specific purpose

instruct: 1. to teach someone 2. to show someone how to do something 3. to direct or give orders

integral: 1. fundamental; essential 2. of the utmost importance 3. necessary

integrate: 1. to add something to a unit to make it whole 2. to combine two or more things 3. to join; to unify

integrity: 1. the quality of being honest and having strong moral principles 2. the quality or state of being whole and undivided 3. the quality or state of being unimpaired; soundness

intelligence: 1. the ability to learn or to acquire knowledge or skills 2. classified or secret information about an organization or a country

interact: 1. to communicate with and react to another human 2. to act on

interaction: 1. the act of communicating and acting with other individuals

intermediate: 1. in the middle of two things, places, etc. 2. between two levels; between basic and advanced

intermittent: 1. happening at irregular intervals 2. not steady 3. stopping and starting

internal: 1. found or existing within certain limits 2. inner 3. interior

interpret: 1. to understand something in a certain way 2. to explain something or make it possible to understand 3. to convert someone's spoken words into another language

interpretation: 1. explanation 2. definition 3. the act of orally translating from one language to another

interval: 1. the space or spaces between things 2. the period of time between two things 3. a pause

intervene: 1. to get involved or become involved in a situation in order to change its suspected outcome 2. to interrupt 3. to be situated between two things

intervention: 1. the act of becoming involved in something

intrinsic: 1. inherent 2. relating to the basic nature of something 3. fundamental

inundate: overwhelm (someone or something) by sending or providing with a large amount of things at the same time

invest: 1. to put one's money into something with the intention of eventually earning money from the project 2. to give power or rank to 3. to install a new leader 4. to endow

investigation: 1. research or inquiry 2. the act of trying to find information about something in order to better understand it

invoke: 1. request blessing, help, inspiration, support, etc. from someone, especially God, a god, a saint, etc. 2. ask for; request earnestly 3. make someone have a particular feeling or remember something

isolate: 1. to seclude someone or something 2. to place something in quarantine 3. to separate something or someone

isolated: 1. separated from others 2. occurring just one time

journal: 1. a newspaper or magazine 2. a magazine that contains articles about a specific subject 3. a written record of the day 4. a logbook

justification: 1. the reason behind something; something that explains or justifies something else

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justify: 1. to explain or defend one's position or reasoning 2. to adjust one's text so that the right and left edges of a document are equal 3. to prove something to be correct

juxtaposition: 1. the act of placing items side-by-side 2. the act of placing items close together, often to incite comparison

kindle: 1. to build or light a fire 2. to make something burn; to ignite 3. to arouse an emotion or cause a feeling 4. to stir up

label: 1. a piece of material on an object that gives information about the object 2. a name or phrase assigned to a person to classify them, often in an unfair manner 3. a company that produces music

labour: 1. work or physical exertion 2. the process of giving birth to a baby 3. workers, when considered collectively

languid: 1. lacking enthusiasm, energy, or strength; without interest or spirit 2. (of a period of time) relaxed and pleasant 3. weak or faint from illness or fatigue 4. slow in progress; tardy

latent: exists but is not active, obvious, completely developed, or cannot be seen

laudable: deserving or worthy of praise

lavish: 1. extravagant or expensive 2. liberal in one's spending or giving of money 3. impressive 4. generous 5. sumptuous

lax: 1. not as strict or strong 2. loose 3. not careful

layer: 1. different tiers that make something up 2. a thin sheet of a certain substance 3. a substance that is above or under another substance

lecture: 1. a speech or lesson about a specific subject 2. a speech that is open to to the public 3. a long and serious scolding

legal: 1. allowed or permitted by law 2. related or connected to law

legislate: 1. to create and pass laws

legislation: 1. laws 2. the act of lawmaking

levy: 1. to impose a tax, fee or fine on 2. to officially request the payment of a tax, fee or fine

liberal: 1. tolerant or open-minded 2. in favor of personal rights and freedoms 3. in favor of reform and progressive policies 4. generous

likewise: 1. similarly 2. moreover 3. in addition

link: 1. to connect two or more things 2. to relate things 3. to join

location: 1. the place where someone or something can be found 2. place

lofty: 1. elevated; high 2. arrogant; thinking that one is better or more important than others 3. tall

logic: 1. a specific or formal way of thinking 2. the scientific study of the processes used when humans reason or think

lucid: 1. very clear and easy to understand 2. clear; transparent 3. able to think clearly

lucrative: producing a lot of wealth or profit; profitable

ludicrous: 1. absurd 2. laughable; deserving of or causing laughter 3. ridiculous

lull: 1. cause to sleep, rest, or calm, typically with soothing sounds or movements 2. cause someone feel secure, relaxed, or confident instead of careful and alert, especially by deception 3. a temporary calm, quiet, or stillness, as in a storm 4. become calm

magnanimous: 1. kind, generous, or forgiving in overlooking injury or insult, especially towards a rival or less powerful person; free from petty resentfulness or vindictiveness 2. high-minded; generous and noble

magnate: 1. a very successful or very important person in a specific industry

maintenance: 1. financial support given from one ex-spouse to another 2. upkeep 3. the act of maintaining

major: 1. quite important 2. serious 3. large 4. more important

malleable: 1. (of a metal or other material) able to be hammered, pounded, or pressed into various shapes without breaking or cracking 2. easily influenced, trained, or controlled; adaptable

manifold: 1. multiple or many in number 2. varied or consisting of multiple parts or elements 3. plentiful, numerous

manual: 1. a guide book that tells one how to operate or use something 2. an instruction book

margin: 1. a border or edge 2. the difference between the cost of production of a good and the amount at which it is sold

marginal: 1. not important 2. quite small 3. on the margin or border

mature: 1. to grow old 2. to develop 3. to ripen

maximise: 1. to make as large as possible 2. to make the most of something 3. to use something in a way that allows one to get the best possible result

maximum: 1. the highest possible amount or largest quantity

meager: 1. meek or feeble 2. inadequate 3. deficient in quantity; less than is needed or necessary

mechanism: 1. a machine or device 2. the working parts of a machine

media: 1. companies or institutions that report the news through the television, radio, press, internet, etc. 2. mass communication when considered as a whole

mediate: 1. to settle disputes through negotiation 2. to be an intermediary 3. to work with opposing sides to reach an agreement

medium: 1. a way of expressing something, such as photography or print 2. something in a middle position 3. surrounding objects; environment

melancholy: a feeling of sadness, depression, and of being without hope, typically with no obvious cause

mental: 1. related to or involving the mind 2. existing in the mind

mercenary: 1. working or acting only for money or other reward 2. a professional soldier hired to serve in a foreign army, guerrilla organization, etc.

merge: 1. to put two or more things together; to unite; to combine

method: 1. a way of doing something 2. an approach 3. a technique

meticulous: 1. extremely concerned with details 2. thorough and precise 3. finicky

migrate: 1. to move from one region or country to another

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migration: 1. the movement of people or animals from one reason to another, based on a variety of different reasons

military: 1. related to soldiers, the army, or armed conflict 2. done or made by soldiers

minimal: 1. the least or fewest possible 2. extremely small 3. negligible

minimise: 1. to make something smaller 2. to reduce as much as possible in amount or degree 3. to make something seem less important

minimum: 1. the smallest or least amount of something possible 2. the smallest size possible

ministry: 1. a government department that is in charge of a specific task or subject 2. the job of being a preacher or a priest

mire: 1. to entangle or trap 2. to cause to stick or get stuck 3. to soil or stain with mud

mitigate: make something less severe, serious, painful, harmful, unpleasant, or bad

mode: 1. a fashion 2. a way of doing something or performing a task

modify: 1. to make changes to something 2. to adjust or alter

momentous: 1. extremely important, especially in reference to the future or future events 2. weighty

monotonous: 1. repetitive and boring 2. lacking variety 3. dull 4. wearisome

motivation: 1. the enthusiasm, interest or reason for doing something

mundane: 1. ordinary and not interesting or exciting 2. relating to the world and practical matters instead of heavenly or spiritual ones; worldly; earthly

mutual: 1. shared between two or more parties 2. held in common

myriad: 1. a large number, often one that is too large to count 2. a great deal of people or things

navigable: 1. safe, wide, and deep enough to allow the passage or transit of ships 2. able to be directed or steered

negate: 1. to deny something or say something isn't true 2. to cancel something out; to nullify

negative: 1. pessimistic 2. harmful or bad 3. expressing or showing "no" 4. expressing disapproval

negligence: 1. failure to take the proper amount of care in a specific situation, often causing damage or harm 2. the state or quality of being negligent 3. carelessness

network: 1. a large system of smaller interconnected parts 2. a system of interconnected people or things 3. a group of people who are related in some way

neutral: 1. impartial 2. not supporting either side involved in a conflict

nevertheless: 1. in spite of 2. notwithstanding 3. however

nominal: 1. insignificant 2. in name, but not in practice 3. very small

nonetheless: 1. nevertheless 2. however

norm: 1. a rule or standard 2. a pattern or something that is expected 3. a model

nostalgia: 1. homesickness; a longing for one's home or hometown 2. a feeling of sadness and pleasure when thinking about events or things from the past; sentimentality

notion: 1. an idea, belief or opinion about something

notwithstanding: 1. in spite of 2. nevertheless 3. although

novice: a person who is new and not experienced in a job or situation

noxious: 1. detrimental to living beings 2. something that is dangerous for one's physical health

nuance: a small variation in meaning, tone or feeling

nuclear: 1. related to or employing nuclear weapons or energy 2. related to the nucleus of an atom

nullify: 1. to void something, especially a legal agreement or decision 2. to make something useless or null

objective: 1. fair and impartial 2. unbiased 3. based on facts and not affected by feelings 4. actual

oblique: 1. possessing a slanting or sloping angle or direction; inclined 2. not expressing something in a clear or direct manner

obliterate: 1. to totally destroy 2. to make something disappear completely 3. to get rid of, erase or cover completely

oblivious: 1. unaware or not conscious about something happening at that moment 2. forgetful 3. inattentive

obscure: 1. not famous or well-known 2. difficult to see 3. faint; vague 4. unnoticeable 5. mysterious

obsolete: 1. outdated or old-fashioned 2. no longer in use 3. antiquated

obstinate: 1. unreasonably stubborn and unwilling to change one's opinion or attitude 2. troublesome to deal with, change or remove

obtain: 1. to get 2. to acquire 3. to procure

obvious: 1. clear 2. easy to see 3. apparent 4. evident

occupy: 1. to be inside something 2. to dwell in 3. to fill 4. to keep someone busy

occur: 1. to take place 2. to happen 3. to exist

odd: 1. unable to be divided by two 2. strange or uncommon 3. unexpected

offset: 1. to balance or counteract something 2. to compensate

ominous: 1. threatening or suggestive that something bad is going to occur 2. inauspicious

ongoing: 1. continuing 2. happening at the present time 3. in progress

opaque: 1. not letting light pass through; not transparent or translucent 2. difficult to understand or explain

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option: 1. the ability or right to choose 2. a choice or something that can be chosen

orient: 1. to adapt something 2. to align something based on a specific point or direction 3. to direct towards a goal

orientation: 1. the act of finding or determining one's position 2. a person or group's interests or beliefs 3. training for a job

orthodox: 1. conventional or acceptable by the general public 2. traditional or old-fashioned in one's beliefs 3. a strict observer of a certain faith

ostensible: 1. something apparent or professed to be true 2. something conspicuous and open to view

oust: 1. to eject someone from a place or a role 2. to force someone out of a position

outcome: 1. the result or consequence 2. the effect

output: 1. production over a specific period of time 2. yield 3. energy or power produced by a system or machine

overall: 1. comprehensive 2. all-inclusive 3. total 4. in general

overlap: 1. a shared area of responsibility or interest 2. the amount in which two things cover a shared area 3. the period of time when two different things are occurring

overseas: 1. abroad 2. in a foreign country

overt: 1. transparent; done or displayed in public 2. not hidden 3. clear and apparent

overwrought: 1. tired; fatigued 2. upset 3. nervous or worried 4. overly emotional 5. too ornate or complex

pacify: 1. to ease a tense situation or someone's anger 2. to cause calm or peace to come to a previously tense situation 3. to put an end to violence or conflict

painstaking: 1. performing or characterized by diligent and careful work, in which much attention is paid to detail 2. trying very hard to do something

palatable: 1. tasty 2. fit to be consumed by humans 3. acceptable

pallid: 1. lacking vitality, liveliness or intensity; dull 2. extremely pale, to the point that one appears to be unhealthy

panel: 1. a board 2. a group of people who work together in order to make decisions, pass judgment or entertain people

paradigm: 1. something that serves as an example or a model 2. accepted ideas or practices that are used in order to explain or view a shared reality

paradox: 1. something that sounds untrue or impossible but might be possible or true 2. something that contradicts itself or has opposite qualities

paragraph: 1. a portion of a text that centers around one specific idea

parallel: 1. not intersecting 2. occurring at the same time 3. extending in the same direction

parameter: 1. a boundary that limits a specific action or process 2. a rule that controls something

paramount: 1. supreme 2. more important than any other thing

parasite: 1. any animal or plant that lives on and feeds on another animal or plant

parody: 1. a work of art such as a text or a play which is created to poke fun at or ridicule another work 2. to poke fun at someone or something

participate: 1. to be involved in something 2. to take part

partisan: 1. strongly prejudiced in favor of something 2. one-sided or partial 3. someone who is devoted to a political party

passive: 1. inactive 2. complacent 3. submissive 4. inert

pathos: 1. sadness or pity 2. the quality of something, such as a work of art, which arouses emotions such as pity or sadness

patron: 1. a person who supports a group, activity or organization by donating money to them; a benefactor 2. a regular or frequent customer

pedestrian: 1. ordinary; dull 2. commonplace 3. undistinguished

pensive: 1. contemplative 2. appearing as if lost in thought, especially about something serious or sad 3. thoughtful

perceive: 1. to become aware of 2. to observe; to notice

percent: 1. out of one hundred 2. a part of one hundred

period: 1. an interval or length of time 2. a full stop

persist: 1. to persevere 2. to continue despite difficulty 3. to stand firm

persistent: 1. unending; unstopping 2. constant 3. stubborn; not willing to give up

perspective: 1. a vista or view 2. a way of looking at or examining something 3. an outlook

pertinent: 1. relevant to the topic at hand 2. logically related to the matter 3. fitting

phase: 1. a stage (of time) 2. a period of time in a person's life

phenomenon: 1. an extraordinary person or thing 2. an observable fact or occurrence 3. something remarkable

philosophy: 1. the study of human morals and behavior 2. ideas and theories about something 3. the way someone thinks about life 4. a theory or belief that guides someone's behavior

physical: 1. related to the body 2. related to something one can see and touch; tangible

piety: 1. devoutness, love or reverence to God 2. devoutness shown through actions or one's daily life

pinnacle: 1. the peak 2. the highest point 3. a tall and pointed formation 4. the most important or successful part of a person's life

pivotal: 1. of extreme importance 2. critical; crucial 3. significant

placid: 1. peaceful and undisturbed 2. serene, with a lack of movement or activity 3. showing calm

platitude: 1. a trite, dull or unoriginal saying that is considered common information, despite the remark being said as if it were original information 2. absence of originality

plausible: something that is credible and possibly true

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pliable: 1. malleable 2. flexible 3. easy to manipulate into other shapes

plumage: 1. the feathers of a bird (collectively) 2. elaborate costume or dress

plummet: 1. to fall suddenly or drastically 2. to plunge

plus: 1. positive 2. higher than 3. extra or added

policy: 1. a course of action decided upon by an organization, a group of people, a government or a political party 2. guidelines

ponderous: 1. slow and clumsy because of great weight or size 2. very boring or dull 3. that seems heavy; bulky; massive

portion: 1. a small part or section of something whole; a piece 2. the specific amount of food given to someone

pose: 1. to take on a posture for artistic purposes 2. to formally ask a question 3. to cause a problem 4. to impersonate someone

positive: 1. extremely certain, without any doubt 2. more than zero 3. hopeful or giving reasons to be so

posterity: 1. future generations 2. one's descendants

posthumous: 1. taking place after death 2. published after death

potent: 1. extremely powerful or effective 2. influential 3. possessing great authority or power

potential: 1. possible 2. able to occur 3. capable of developing or happening

practitioner: 1. a person engaged in a specific practice, such as medicine or law 2. a professional

pragmatic: dealing or concerned with facts or actual practice in a reasonable and logical way instead of depending on ideas, theories or speculation; practical

precarious: 1. something that is not certain 2. risky or subject to chance 3. something which lacks security and is in a possibly dangerous situation

precede: 1. to exist before something 2. to come before 3. to have a higher rank than someone

precedent: 1. a practice or act in the past which is used to justify a similar practice in the present

preceding: 1. before 2. prior to

precipice: 1. a very steep side of a mountain or cliff, typically a tall one 2. a dangerous situation that could lead to harm or failure 3. a very dangerous situation

precipitate: 1. cause (something) to happen quickly, suddenly, unexpectedly, or prematurely before expected, warranted, needed, or desired 2. throw headlong; hurl downward 3. fall; fall downward suddenly and dramatically

precise: 1. accurate; exact 2. meticulous or exacting

predecessor: 1. the previous occupant of a post or a role 2. something that comes before another related thing

predict: 1. to say that something is going to happen before it actually does 2. to foretell 3. to announce in advance

predominant: 1. the most powerful 2. the most common 3. superior or supreme

predominantly: 1. chiefly 2. mainly 3. principally

preliminary: 1. introductory 2. leading up to the main event or thing

prerogative: 1. a privilege or something that one is permitted to do that others aren't 2. an advantage 3. a right

presumption: 1. the act of assuming 2. something assumed 3. the act of believing something without seeing proof

pretentious: trying to appear or sound as more impressive, successful, or important than someone really is, especially in matters of art and literature

pretext: a false reason or motive that you pretend to have in order to hide your real reason or motive for doing something; excuse

previous: 1. anterior 2. something coming or occurring before another event 3. prior

primary: 1. fundamental; principal 2. basic 3. essential 4. happening first

prime: 1. chief 2. most important 3. of the highest quality

principal: 1. most important 2. main 3. first in rank or order

principle: 1. a basic rule or law 2. a standard of behavior or morals

prior: 1. coming before 2. preceding 3. previous or former

priority: 1. something that is considered to be extremely important and has the ability to take place before other things 2. possessing the right to come before others

procedure: 1. a way of doing something 2. a medical treatment 3. course of action

process: 1. a series of happenings or actions that lead to a specific result 2. a naturally occurring series of changes

procure: 1. obtain something, especially with care, effort, or difficulty 2. obtain (a sexual partner, especially woman) for another, for the purpose of prostitution

prodigious: 1. very great or impressive in size, force, or extent; enormous 2. extraordinary; marvelous; wonderful; amazing

profane: 1. to defile 2. to show a lack of respect for objects considered to be sacred or holy 3. to violate

professional: 1. relating to or suitable for a specific profession 2. performing an activity to earn money instead of to relax or have fun 3. possessing the necessary qualities

profound: 1. very deep 2. (of a state, quality, or emotion) very great 3. (of a disease or disability) very severe 4. (of a subject or idea) intellectually deep; entering far into subjects 5. (of a person or statement) having or showing deep thought or wisdom

profuse: 1. created or given in large amounts; generous 2. plentiful 3. given abundantly or magnanimously

prohibit: 1. to forbid or ban 2. to not allow or permit 3. to officially ban

project: 1. a scheme or a plan 2. a proposal 3. a task which requires work to be done

prolific: 1. producing a large amount of something, especially fruit, offspring or works 2. bountiful, fruitful or productive

promote: 1. to raise in rank 2. to encourage or support 3. to encourage people to buy something 4. to give publicity to

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proportion: 1. the amount of something in relation to the whole 2. the comparative size or degree 3. the relation between size and number

prospect: 1. the ability to do something, especially in the future 2. a possibility 3. chances or opportunities for success

prospective: 1. something in the future that is expected or predicted to happen 2. probable or likely to happen

protocol: 1. the rules and regulations governing certain situations 2. a record of a transaction 3. a formal diplomatic agreement between two or more countries

provocative: 1. provoking or tending to provoke, as to action, thought, feeling, etc.; inciting, stimulating, irritating, or vexing 2. causing people to become sexually excited

prudent: 1. careful, and using good judgment in practical matters 2. careful in regard to one's own interests; provident 3. cautious or discreet in conduct; circumspect; not rash

psychology: 1. the study of the human mind and human behavior

publication: 1. something that's been published; printed matter 2. the process or act of making a book, magazine or newspaper available to the public

publish: 1. to make a document available in digital or print format 2. to make something public or known

purchase: 1. an object that has been bought 2. the act of buying something

pursue: 1. to follow someone or something 2. to hunt for or look for

quaint: 1. picturesque 2. old-fashioned 3. interesting or appealing yet quirky in an old-fashioned way

qualitative: 1. relating to the quality of something

quarry: 1. an open-air pit from which rock is excavated 2. a person or animal being hunted or searched for

quotation: 1. specific words that have been directly taken from a certain source 2. the act of using someone else's words

radical: 1. extreme; drastic 2. supporting drastic changes 3. very important 4. new and different

ramble: 1. to walk about or move about in an aimless manner 2. to follow a winding path 3. to write or talk in an aimless, uncontrolled manner 4. to stroll or walk for pleasure

rampant: (of something bad) growing, happening, or spreading quickly and in an uncontrolled way

random: 1. possessing no specific plan or structure 2. done by chance

range: 1. a set of things that are similar 2. the upper and lower limits 3. the period of time in which something can happen

ratify: (especially of governments or organizations) make (a treaty, contract, or agreement) official by signing it or formally accepting it

ratio: 1. a rate 2. the relationship between two numbers or amounts

rational: 1. logical 2. using reason to make decisions or act 3. sensible

raze: 1. completely destroy a city, building, etc. 2. scrape or shave off; erase

reap: 1. cut (wheat, rye, etc.) with a scythe, sickle, or reaping machine 2. gather or take (a crop, harvest, etc.) by cutting 3. gain or obtain as the reward of one’s own or another’s action, conduct, work, etc.

receptacle: 1. any container or device for holding substances or objects 2. a vessel used to hold things

rectify: 1. correct (something that is wrong) or make something right or better 2. correct by calculation or adjustment

redundant: 1. superfluous 2. unnecessarily wordy 3. not needed

referendum: 1. a direct vote in which the general public votes on the answer to a specific question or issue 2. a note or letter from a diplomat to his or her home country, asking for instructions

refine: 1. to purify; to take impurities out of something 2. to make changes in order to improve something

regime: 1. a government that is currently in power 2. a system of rules 3. a political system 4. a management system

region: 1. a specific part of the world; a large area of land where the people or land possesses similar characteristics 2. a district 3. a part of the body

regulate: 1. to create and impose rules for something 2. to adjust to ensure accuracy 3. to control; to manage

reinforce: 1. to make something stronger 2. to enhance something 3. to support an idea by giving evidence or reasons

relaxed: 1. not strict 2. free 3. calm 4. informal

release: 1. to let go or free 2. to emancipate 3. to allow something to flow freely 4. to make information available to the public

relevant: 1. related to the issue being discussed or debated 2. pertinent 3. connected to an issue

reliance: 1. a dependence on a specific person or object 2. the act of depending on someone or something

relinquish: 1. give up (something, such as power, control, or possession), especially when you do not want to do this; retire from; abandon 2. surrender 3. let go (a grasp, hold, etc.)

reluctance: 1. unwillingness or hesitancy to do something

reluctant: 1. unwilling to do something 2. uneager to do something

remorse: 1. strong pain or sadness about something you have done and feel guilty about 2. regret

renounce: 1. give up (a claim, right, or possession, etc.), especially by formal announcement 2. give up (a cause, bad habit, way of life, etc.) voluntarily 3. reject; disown

renovation: 1. restore to an earlier condition by making changes and repairs, especially an old house, building, room, etc. 2. reinvigorate; refresh; revive

reproach: express disapproval of, criticism of, or disappointment in (someone), especially for not being successful or not doing what is expected

research: 1. to investigate 2. to make inquiries in order to find out information 3. to carefully study something in order to find out new information

reside: 1. to inhabit 2. to live in a certain place 3. to exist

resident: 1. someone who lives in a certain place or region 2. an inhabitant

resignation: 1. the act of leaving a job or position by formally resigning 2. the formal, often written, declaration that one is leaving a job or post

resolution: 1. a decision that is made by a group through a voting process 2. a personal promise to oneself 3. a formal statement of intent or opinion

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resolve: 1. firm or strong determination 2. a resolution made by a legislative body; a ruling

resonant: 1. prompting thoughts of a similar experience 2. loud, clear, or deep 3. enduring 4. echoing

resource: 1. material used to do or make something 2. a supply of something that can be used when required 3. a country's tools for generating wealth

restore: 1. to bring something back to its original condition 2. to make something new again

restrain: 1. to hold back or put limits on someone or something 2. to curb 3. to keep under control

restrict: 1. to limit 2. to physically confine 3. to keep under control

retain: 1. to remember information 2. to hold or keep someone or something 3. to hire someone by paying them an initial fee

reticent: 1. not willing to tell people about one's thoughts, feelings, and personal affairs 2. uncommunicative, restrained, or reserved in style 3. reluctant; unwilling

revenue: 1. income 2. money that an organization, government or company receives from different sources

reverent: feeling, showing, or characterized by great respect and admiration; deeply respectful

reverse: 1. to overturn 2. to send in the opposite direction 3. to move backwards

revise: 1. to check something and make changes to make sure that it is acceptable 2. to change or amend 3. to alter

revision: 1. a modification or edit of something 2. the act of looking over something that one has done

revolution: 1. a huge change in something, such as a political organization or country 2. the circular movement around a certain celestial body 3. a complete cycle 4. a very important change in the way people act

rhetoric: 1. a style of speaking or writing that is intended to influence people and that may not be honest or reasonable 2. the art, skill, or study of using language formally and effectively in speaking or writing

rhetorical: of, relating to, or concerned with the art of speaking or writing that is effective or intended to influence, persuade, or impress people and that may not be honest or reasonable

rigid: 1. stiff 2. hard 3. unyielding or not able to be bent 4. unable to be changed or modified

robust: 1. healthy 2. hardy or strong 3. sturdy and able to withstand detrimental conditions 4. successful

role: 1. the part that a performer in theater acts out 2. one's proper function in society 3. a person's function

rouse: 1. wake (someone) from sleep 2. cause (someone who is tired, lazy, or unwilling to do something) to become active 3. make angry or excited, as to anger or action; stir up 4. (nautical) pull or haul strongly and all together, especially by hand

route: 1. a course or path of travel 2. a course that certain forms of transport follow habitually 3. a way of achieving something

sanction: 1. official permission or approval, as for an action 2. a threat to punish someone for breaking a law or rule 3. an official order, such as the limiting or stopping of trade, that is taken against a country in order to force it to obey international laws

saturate: 1. make something completely wet with water or other liquid so that no more can be absorbed 2. cause (a substance) to combine with, dissolve, or hold the greatest possible amount of another substance

scale: 1. to climb a surface that is steep 2. to set something according to a scale or measure something by a scale 3. to remove something in layers or scales

scapegoat: 1. a person who is blamed in place of others for something that is not their fault or doing

scenario: 1. a possible situation 2. a written description or outline of a play, movie or other theater-based work

schedule: 1. to arrange for something; to make arrangements 2. to plan for something 3. to make plans

scheme: 1. an elaborate plan that is devised in order to gain something and, often, trick people 2. an official plan

scope: the range of one's perceptions, thoughts, or actions; extent; bound

scrupulous: 1. very careful about doing something correctly, giving a lot of attention to details 2. careful about doing what is honest and morally right

section: 1. a piece of something 2. a part of a whole object 3. a smaller part of a book or a newspaper

sector: 1. a division of a society or an economy 2. a part of something that is different from others

security: 1. safety 2. a general freedom from risks

select: 1. preferred 2. of a special value or importance 3. exclusive 4. discriminating 5. only the best

sequence: 1. the order or pattern in which things happen or take place 2. a set of things that is put in a specific order

serene: 1. tranquil, peaceful or calm 2. bright or clear 3. untroubled or unaffected

series: 1. a sequence of things 2. a set of related objects 3. a collection of episodes of a television show that use the same characters in different situations

shift: 1. a slight change in something 2. a change 3. a period of approximately eight hours during which workers perform their jobs

shrewd: having or showing sharp powers to understand things and to make good judgments in practical affairs; astute

significant: 1. quite important 2. suggesting or showing a meaning 3. noticeable or detectable 4. noteworthy

similar: 1. related to something else 2. nearly the same, but not exactly the same 3. comparable

simulate: 1. to reproduce a situation 2. to feign 3. to do something that looks as if it is real when it truly is not

site: 1. a place where something can be found or where something is located

skeptical: 1. having, showing or marked by doubt 2. doubting 3. questioning

sole: 1. the bottom part of a foot or shoe 2. the bottom part of an object such as a golf club or a plow

solely: 1. exclusively 2. alone; not involving anyone or anything else 3. exclusively

somewhat: 1. slightly 2. a little bit 3. to a certain degree

source: 1. the place in which something originates or which someone comes from 2. a point or place of origin 3. a person who provides information

sparse: 1. not dense or thick 2. small in amount and not dense or crowded 3. scanty

specific: 1. clear and precise 2. special 3. particular; relating to one specific person, group or thing 4. unique

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specified: 1. defined 2. thoroughly commented or explained 3. expressly stated

specify: 1. to designate 2. to state in an explicit manner 3. to be specific

sphere: 1. a globe; a ball shaped object 2. an area of knowledge, study or expertise

spontaneous: 1. happening or done in a natural, often sudden way, without being planned or thought about 2. growing without cultivation or human labor, as plants and fruits

sporadic: 1. occurring at irregular intervals; not constant or regular; patternless 2. appearing singly or at widely scattered localities, as a plant or disease

stability: 1. balance 2. firmness of position 2. being unlikely to change

stagnant: 1. (of water or air ) not flowing or moving, and often smells bad 2. not active, changing, or progressing

stark: 1. very obvious; very plain and easily seen; unpleasantly or sharply clear 2. complete; absolute; full; perfect; entire 3. unpleasant and difficult to accept or experience; severe; violent; fierce

static: not moving, acting, or progressing, especially in an undesirable or uninteresting way

statistic: 1. a numerical fact 2. the use of numbers to explain a situation

statistics: 1. a field of study that collects and analyzes data 2. the data collected and what it means

status: 1. one's standing in relation to others 2. one's position in society 3. a state of things or events

steadfast: 1. very committed or loyal to a person, belief, or cause 2. not changing, fickle, or wavering; constant

stereotype: 1. an oversimplified way of looking at something 2. a simple and unwavering idea about what a certain person or group of people are like

straightforward: 1. clear and easy to understand 2. frank; honest 3. direct

stress: 1. the pressure exerted on a physical object 2. emotional stress or anxiety caused by a difficult situation 3. emphasis placed on something

stringent: 1. strict, rigid 2. binding 3. constraining 4. extremely limiting

structure: 1. a free-standing building made from different parts 2. the way in which something is organized 3. the quality of being organized

submit: 1. to hand in or present something to a teacher, boss or other other person 2. to permit someone to exercise control over you 3. to surrender to authority

subordinate: 1. from a lower rank or position 2. inferior 3. less important

subsequent: 1. following 2. succeeding 3. happening after something else

subsidiary: 1. secondary 2. used to supplement something or someone 3. auxiliary

subsidy: 1. money that a government gives a group to help it 2. financial assistance

substantiate: 1. support with proof or evidence 2. give concrete form or body to; convert into substance; embody 3. give substance to; make real or actual

successive: 1. consecutive 2. following 3. sequential

successor: 1. a person who takes over for another person after they have left 2. someone or something that follows another

succinct: 1. concise and clearly expressed 2. expressed in a short and easy to understand way

sufficient: 1. enough as necessary 2. adequate

sum: 1. the total of a calculation 2. an amount of money 3. the total amount of something in existence

summary: 1. an explanation of something giving the main points or ideas of the original document or argument 2. a recapitulation

superficial: 1. being at, on, or near the surface 2. shallow; not profound or thorough

superfluous: being more than is needed, useful, or wanted; surplus; excessive

supplement: 1. to add to something, especially in order to make up for a deficiency 2. an addition 3. something added to make something complete

supplementary: 1. used in order to complete something 2. additional

suppress: 1. end or stop (something) by force 2. keep (something) secret; keep from appearing or being known, published, etc. 3. stop yourself feeling, showing, or being affected by an emotion

survey: 1. a poll used to measure public opinion or the incidence of something in a society 2. an examination of a subject or a situation 3. a careful examination of land in order to map it

survive: 1. to live through an event 2. to stay alive 3. to continue to exist 4. to outlive someone

susceptible: 1. easily influenced or harmed by something 2. (of a person) easily affected emotionally; sensitive 3. a person who is vulnerable to being infected by a certain disease, or to be affected by it more severely than others are

suspend: 1. to delay something 2. to postpone 3. to stop something temporarily or permanently 4. to hang something in the air

sustain: 1. to bear or to hold 2. to support 3. to keep something alive 4. to provide for 5. to deal with

tacit: 1. expressed or understood without being directly said or expressed; implied 2. unspoken; silent

tangible: 1. palpable 2. able to be felt or touched 3. real

target: 1. a goal 2. an object that is shot at 3. an objective 4. something that one wants to achieve

task: 1. to assign a job to someone 2. to place a burden on someone

tawdry: 1. unpleasant or immoral 2. cheap and clearly of bad quality 3. gaudy

team: 1. a group of people that work toward a common goal 2. two or more animals that work together to pull something

technical: 1. mechanical 2. specialized 3. having or requiring specialized knowledge

technology: 1. the use of scientific knowledge for practical purposes, with special reference to its use in industry 2. applied sciences

teem: 1. be full of things; abound or swarm; move in large numbers 2. be present in large quantity

temperate: 1. emotionally calm and controlled 2. not extreme in behavior or language 3. (of weather conditions) neither very hot nor very cold

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temporary: 1. limited 2. not lasting or permanent 3. passing 4. brief

tenacious: 1. holding firmly 2. that clings; adhesive; sticky 3. holding together firmly; cohesive 4. very determined to do something; persistent; stubborn

tension: 1. a feeling of nervousness before something 2. a feeling of anger or hostility between two or more people 3. the degree to which a string, rope or wire is tensed

tentative: 1. provisional 2. not fixed or positive 3. experimental 4. hesitant or without confidence; uncertain

terminate: 1. to stop 2. to put an end to 3. to sack or fire 4. to conclude

termination: 1. the conclusion to or end of something 2. the act of ending something

terse: 1. short or curt, often in a way that is interpreted as unfriendly 2. concise and to the point

text: 1. a piece of writing such as a book 2. all the words that were said in a speech 3. written words

theme: 1. the topic or subject discussed in a book, essay, conversation, debate, etc. 2. a subject that is brought up frequently 3. the style upon which something is based

theory: 1. a hypothesis 2. an idea that tries to explain something 3. an idea used to justify or explain something

thereby: 1. because of 2. thus 3. as a result

thesis: 1. the subject to be written about or debated in an essay 2. a long study written while one is studying one's doctoral degree 3. the main idea of a written work

topic: 1. a subject that is currently being examined or discussed in a conversation, book, essay, article, etc. 2. a theme

trace: 1. to follow or to track 2. to find the starting point of something 3. to copy a drawing by placing a piece of paper over the original and following the lines one can see through the paper

transfer: 1. moving something from one place to another 2. an exchange 3. giving property or financial holdings to another person

transform: 1. to change something 2. to convert 3. to totally change something in an attempt to make it more attractive or improve it

transformation: 1. a major change in something or someone 2. a change into something entirely different 3. the process of changing into something totally different

transgress: 1. to surpass the limits of what is considered by society to be acceptable 2. to sin 3. to go beyond

transit: 1. the act of passing through a certain location 2. a public system of transportation 3. the act of moving people or goods from one place to another

transition: 1. the conversion from one state to another 2. to cause someone or something to convert from one state to another

transmission: 1. the act of sending out a message or broadcasting a message 2. the act of passing something from one person to another

transmit: 1. to convey 2. to send across 3. to communicate or broadcast 4. to give a virus or illness to others 5. to pass from one person to another

transmute: 1. to transform 2. to convert from one form or state into another 3. to cause something to convert into something else

transport: 1. to carry something 2. to bring something from one point to another 3. to move goods or people using vehicles

traverse: 1. to move across or through 2. to cross 3. to extend across

treatise: a formal, usually lengthy, book or piece of writing about a particular subject

trend: 1. the general direction in which something is moving or the way people are behaving 2. a fashion 3. a tendency

trigger: 1. to bring about 2. to cause 3. to set something off 4. to make something happen

trivial: 1. of no real importance 2. ordinary 3. insignificant or minor

truant: 1. a student who avoids school without permission 2. a lazy person 3. a person who avoids or neglects his or her work duties

tumult: 1. a loud noise that is produced by a large group of people 2. a violent or turbulent uprising; a riot 3. confusion

ultimately: 1. finally 2. in the end 3. at last

undergo: 1. to go through a certain procedure or experience 2. to experience something 3. to endure 4. to suffer something

underlie: 1. to serve as a basis for 2. to be a strong influence on 3. to be situated below something

underlying: 1. fundamental 2. lying beneath 3. basic

undertake: 1. to agree to do something 2. to begin something, especially a long and difficult process 3. to pledge to do something

ungainly: (of a person or movement) awkward; clumsy; not moving in an attractive or graceful way

uniform: 1. a set of clothes that must be worn to be in a specific school or do a specific job 2. an outfit worn by people from a same school or doing the same job

unify: 1. to join two or more units together in order to create a newer, larger unit 2. to combine 3. to consolidate

unique: 1. special 2. being the only one of its kind 3. unparalleled 4. extraordinary

utilise: 1. to employ something 2. to use something 3. to put to use for a specific purpose

utility: 1. a public service 2. something useful to the public 3. usefulness

utter: Complete

validity: 1. well grounded 2. the state of being valid 3. having legal force

vary: 1. to change 2. to fluctuate 3. to alter 4. to differ

vehement: 1. powerful 2. forceful 3. intense; impassioned 4. expressing strong feelings and great energy

vehicle: 1. any device which is used to transport one or more people around 2. a means or way of expressing a certain idea

venerable: deserving respect, especially because of age, wisdom, character, long use, etc.

venerate: regard or treat (someone or something ) with great respect

version: 1. an individual's view about something that happened 2. an adaptation 3. a form of a book or other object that is slightly different from other books or objects

Click here to test your PTE Vocabulary

vex: make someone angry, annoyed, confused, or worried, especially with trivial matters

via: 1. by way of or through

vigilant: carefully watchful and alert to detect and avoid possible danger or difficulties

vindicate: 1. clear from criticism, blame, guilt, suspicion, etc. with supporting arguments or proof 2. defend or maintain (a cause, claim, etc.) against opposition

violate: 1. to infringe on 2. to profane 3. to break a promise or a law 4. to do harm

virtual: 1. not existing in the real, physical world 2. created by a computer or the internet 3. nearly (the thing mentioned) 4. imaginary

virtually: 1. essentially 2. almost 3. just about

visible: 1. able to be seen 2. frequently seen in public; conspicuous 3. obvious

vision: 1. sight 2. the ability to see 3. a mental image 4. something or someone considered to be extremely beautiful

visual: 1. capable of being seen with one's naked eye 2. related to sight 3. relating to things that can be seen

vocation: a particular occupation, business, or profession, especially one for which a person is particularly suited or qualified

volatile: 1. (of a substance) vaporizing or evaporating quickly 2. likely to change suddenly and unexpectedly or suddenly become violent or angry; unstable; explosive

volume: 1. the amount of space taken up by something 2. an amount of something 3. the sound level

voluntary: 1. not obligatory 2. unenforced 3. given or done by choice

wane: 1. to decline in power 2. to lose strength or intensity 3. to approach the end 4. to ebb or dwindle

wary: cautious or nervous about possible dangers or problems; watchful

waver: 1. be undecided between two opinions, possibilities, or courses of action or you keep choosing one way and then the other 2. become unsteady because of weakness, emotion, tiredness, etc.

wax: 1. to get larger or increase in size 2. to become stronger 3. to put wax on a surface 4. to express oneself

welfare: 1. the well-being of a person or people 2. financial aid from a government to a person in need

whereas: 1. in contrast to the fact that 2. although 3. since

whereby: 1. by which

widespread: 1. able to be found in many different locations 2. extensive 3. popular 4. occupying a wide space

wretched: 1. very unpleasant, unhappy, ill, or unfortunate state or in very bad condition 2. poor in quality or ability; very inferior

zeal: great energy, effort, and enthusiasm, as in working for a person, cause, or object

The following simple English grammar tips and tricks will help you to learn and memorize English grammar rules and speak correctly. If you are on this site for English grammar practice, these tips will really help you. Let's start.

Invest your time in learning

It surely takes some time to learn English. There is no shortcut way to learn it. Some websites may say that they will teach you English in seven days or one month. These are false offers. Invest some time in learning and practicing. Your English skills will surely improve.

Speak, speak, and speak!

Try to speak English the same way you write it. Do not worry about grammatical mistakes. The more you practice, the less mistakes you will make and the more fluent you will be. So, practice daily and do not be afraid of grammatical errors.

Slow down your speaking speed

Your confidence will go down if you try to speak fluently from the very beginning. Give yourself some time. Start with slow speaking speed and increase your speed over time as you make more progress day by day. Slowing down speaking speed has another benefit — you will get enough time to make sentences in your mind before you speak.

The more you practice speaking, the more confident you will be.

Use Mobile apps

Luckily, there are many English learning apps available. Some are free and some are paid apps. If you are a smartphone user, you should install some of these apps in your mobile phone. You can at least install one app and start practicing. A mobile app is a very handy and useful thing to learn at your convenient time. You can start with free apps.

Install and use a dictionary app in your mobile

There are several free dictionary apps that will help you to learn proper pronunciation and new words. It is highly possible that your smartphone already has a dictionary installed. Use it or install a better one.

Try to get a good bilingual dictionary for better understanding. Besides using a mobile app, you can buy and use a good bilingual dictionary. A good bilingual dictionary is always a good investment for personal improvement.

Learn English idioms and phrasal verbs

Idioms and phrasal verbs are very common in everyday English conversation. If you do not know them, you may fail to understand the correct meaning of what the other person is saying. So, do not ignore them. Try to learn the most common English idioms and phrasal verbs.

Listen to news bulletins

Almost every radio and television channel broadcasts news bulletins. If you have a smartphone, radio or television, you can listen to these English news bulletins. Besides learning the correct pronunciation, you can learn correct English. Listening to these bulletins will also improve your fluency. This is a common technique used by English learners.

Read out loud

How does your English sound? The pronunciation style of some people is very bad. But there is a simple and easy way to fix improve pronunciation. Take a newspaper or any other script written in English and read out loud. This way you can hear and test your own pronunciation. If you are not happy with your own pronunciation, keep practicing and your English pronunciation will surely improve.

Learn new words daily

The more words you learn, the better you can understand English and express yourself. You may be surprised to know that learning only the basic words can help you to speak English that is used in communication everyday.

Learn sentences

Besides learning common words, try learning common sentences used in everyday English communication. This will give you a huge boost in your learning efforts.

Write every day

When you write, do not be shy of your mistakes. Try to write at least a few paragraphs, ideally at least one page. It is a great practice to use your newly learned words and practice grammar. This will also improve your writing skills.

Watch English movies

These movies will help you to learn proper pronunciation and improve your understanding of English. When you see how native English speakers speak English, your mind will automatically start copying the style. You can try to speak like them at home to understand the quality of your pronunciation and fluency.

Language swap

There are several websites where you can find people who are native English speakers and want to help your learn English if you teach them your language. This is free and can be a great way to learn from native speakers. Many learners are using this method and you should give a try.

Go to a mentor

A mentor can help you to guide in the right direction. She can measure your progress and suggest whatever you need to improve. You can regularly discuss about your improvement and weakness with your mentor. Oftentimes, she can help you. Your mentor can be someone who is good at English. She can be your school / college / university teacher, your friend or any person good at English.

Try to correct your mistakes

It is common to make mistakes. Every time you make a mistake, write it in a separate piece of paper. Make a list of mistakes. Check your mistakes from time to time and try not to make these mistakes again when you practice. These mistakes are clear and good indications of your weakness in English.

Give yourself time to think

Whenever you make a mistake, you should think how you can avoid this mistake from next time. Take time and assess your progress and weakness.

Be an advance learner

Try to learn advance English grammatical rules and vocabulary. Never be happy with your progress. The more you learn and practice, the better English skills you achieve.

Start with "Tense"

There are mainly three types of tense - past, present and future. Usually, verbs indicate the correct form of each tense. Besides learning tense, you should memorize some verbs too. Do not worry. It is interesting and easy to learn the necessary verbs.

Learn common pronoun usage

Do you know the difference between the common subject pronouns and object pronouns such as I/me, we/us, he/him, she/her, they/them?

We use subject pronouns such as I, we, he she, they when the subject is doing an action. Usually, we use subject pronouns at the beginning of a sentence. Example: I cannot remember the story.

But we do not start a sentence with object pronouns such as me, us, him, her, them. Example: Call him.

Active voice and passive voice

Many English learning students get confused here. In active voice, the subject performs an action. In passive voice, the subject and the object of a sentence swap to form the correct sentence.

Incorrect: The cinema was gone to by me.

Correct: The cinema was enjoyed by me.

Prepositions

A preposition defines the relationship between an object and its surroundings. Without the proper use of prepositions, your English will sound weird. Luckily, there are only a handful of prepositions and these are easy to learn.

Learning new words can be a matter of fun but you need to follow some effective methods to learn new words faster. Read them all in the list below.

Read, read, and read

You will find many new words that you need to learn in novels and literary works. You will be most benefited if you read classic literary books. You should also read magazines and newspapers because these are also good sources of new words that you need to learn. These sources often use high quality English that often contain both common and advance words.

Vocabulary wordbooks

In the bookshops, you will find vocabulary wordbooks that range from beginner to advance levels. You can buy one or more depending on your requirements. These books make it a lot easier to learn because these books come with a complete list of words that is suitable for your level.

Use a journal

During your learning time, you will surely find new words. Add them in your journal. This list will slowly grow. But this journal will help you to measure your progress and show where you need to improve. The journal can inspire you to learn more and faster if you find that you are going slow.

Learn some new words everyday

It is easier and more realistic to digest some new words everyday. If you are determined to learn some new words everyday, you will be surprised and happy to see your progress after a month. The progress will surely motivate you to keep using this learning method.

Use flashcards

Using flashcards is a common way to learn new words. You maybe know that you can buy flashcards from bookshops. Some learners find it easier to learn new words with flashcards. You should give a try too.

Set a target

Set a target that is achievable and realistic. Whatever happens, try to achieve your target at any cost.

Look up new words

Have you found a new word? Get in the habit of looking up words you do not know and immediately do this. If you leave it for later, you may completely forget about it and miss the chance to learn it. A quick way is to look the words in the dictionary installed or available in your smartphone. Another alternative is — look up the word on a search engine like Google.com and you will find the meaning of your desired word in several high quality websites.

Play some word games

If you search online, you can find several word learning games. Some of these games are developed in such a fun and entertaining way that you will not get bored even if you use them hours after hours. These games are not hard to find out. Vocabulary learners usually learn using crossword puzzles, anagrams, word jumble, Scrabble, and Boggle. You can try one of them or all of them.

Use your newly learned words

Take a piece of paper and make one or more sentences for every word you just learned. This way every word will be more memorable. It can take some time but it definitely has its benefits.

Engage in conversations

When you engage in conversation, use your newly learned vocabulary. It can be interesting because the other person will be surprised to see your improved vocabulary power / skills. Besides, you will be able to express / communicate in a better way.

Take vocabulary tests

There are several websites that give you free access to their website so that you can test your vocabulary. This website also helps you to test your SAT vocabulary, GRE vocabulary, IELTS vocabulary, TOEFL vocabulary, ACT vocabulary, TOEIC vocabulary, GMAT vocabulary, PTE vocabulary, ECPE vocabulary, MELAB vocabulary, MCAT vocabulary, and PCAT vocabulary.