AP Senior Vocabulary - The Complete Vocabulary List

abate: reduce in amount, degree, or intensity; lessen

aberrant: different from the right, normal, usual course, expected course or an accepted standard

aberration: a departure from what is right, true, correct, etc., typically an unwelcome one

abeyance: 1. a temporary stoppage or delay of activity 2. suspension

abjure: 1. to officially renounce 2. to formally and publicly announce that one no longer believes in something

abortive: 1. failed 2. unfinished and therefore unsuccessful 3. imperfect

abrasive: 1. unkind or rude 2. an abrasive substance that is used in order to grind down, clean or polish objects

abrogate: 1. to officially put an end to something, especially a law or another type of formal agreement

abscond: leave or escape from a place hurriedly or secretly, typically to avoid detection of, capture, legal prosecution or arrest for an unlawful action

absolute: 1. complete, definite or perfect 2. not limited in any way 3. unadulterated

abstemious: 1. moderation when consuming something one enjoys, such as alcohol or food 2. showing restraint

abstract: 1. not concrete; not related to a physical object or real event 2. expressing or showing feelings instead of real objects or people 3. difficult to understand because of its complexity 4. theoretical

abstruse: difficult to understand, especially because of being extremely complex

accolade: 1. an award 2. a declaration of praise, approval, or admiration

accord: concurrence of opinions or wills

acquiesce: 1. to agree to something reticently but without protesting

acuity: 1. acuteness or sharpness, especially of thought, vision or perception

acumen: the ability to think clearly, make good judgments and take quick decision in a particular subject, such as business or politics

adamant: 1. refusing to be persuaded, or unwilling to change an opinion or decision in spite of pleas, appeals, or reason; stubbornly unyielding 2. too hard to cut, break, or pierce

adroit: very clever or skillful in a physical or mental way

adulation: excessive admiration, praise, or flattery

adumbrate: 1. to give hints or vague information about something that is going to happen in the future 2. to foretell 3. to obscure

advocate: 1. publicly speak, write, plead, recommend, support or argue for a cause, particular policy or way of doing things 2. a person who publicly speaks, writes, pleads, recommends, supports or argues for a cause, particular policy or way of doing things

aesthetic: 1. relating to beauty or the study or appreciation of beauty or good taste 2. nice to look at

alacrity: a cheerful readiness, promptness, or willingness to do something

albeit: 1. although 2. even if 3. notwithstanding

allay: 1. to calm or to lessen negative feelings or pain 2. to pacify 3. to alleviate or relieve

alleviate: 1. to make something more bearable or relieve problems or pain 2. to make something less severe or easier

aloof: 1. unfriendly or unwilling to interact with others 2. distant 3. uninvolved

altruistic: unselfishly concerned for or devoted to the welfare of others

amalgamate: mix, merge, combine or unite to form one thing

amass: 1. to gather or collect goods of any kind over a long period of time 2. to accumulate

ambiguity: 1. the state of being unclear, inexact and open to more than one possible interpretation 2. doubtfulness

ambiguous: 1. not expressed or understood clearly 2. open to or having several possible meanings or interpretations

ambulatory: 1. able to walk 2. mobile and able to move from one place to another 3. moving and not stationary

ameliorate: 1. to improve 2. to make better 3. to make tolerable

amenable: 1. ready or willing to answer, act, agree, or yield 2. responsible or answerable

amiable: pleasant and friendly; good-natured and likable

amity: 1. a positive or friendly relationship 2. a peaceful relationship, especially when referring to two or more nations or specific groups

amorphous: 1. without a defined shape or form 2. unorganized 3. missing a clear structure

anachronism: a person or a thing that is mistakenly placed in a time where it does not belong to, especially a thing or person that belongs to an earlier time

analogous: 1. similar to 2. alike or related in a way that allows analogies to be drawn

analogy: 1. a comparison designed to show that two or more things are similar 2. partial resemblance 3. comparability

anarchy: 1. a lack of government or social control of any sort 2. lawlessness and confusion due to an absence of control or structure

anathema: 1. a malediction or a curse 2. something or someone that is considered to be cursed 3. someone or something that is greatly disliked

anecdote: a short, often funny story, especially about something some happening, usually personal or biographical

animosity: 1. clear negativity or hatred of someone or something 2. strong opposition 3. open hostility

anomalous: deviating from or inconsistent with what is standard, normal, or expected

anomaly: 1. something strange or different from what is considered to be normal 2. unusual or unexpected 3. irregularity

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antagonist: a person who opposes to, struggles against, or competes with someone or something, especially in combat; adversary; opponent

antipathy: a strong feeling of intense aversion, dislike, or hostility

apathy: 1. uninterested and not energetic behavior 2. lack of interest 3. lack of concern

apocryphal: 1. something that is quite possibly untrue or is of doubtful authenticity, despite the fact that many people believe it to be true

appease: 1. to calm a situation 2. to pacify a situation by giving one's enemies what they demand 3. to soothe

apprehensive: 1. worried about something that is going to occur in the future 2. quick to understand

arbitrary: 1. determined in a random way 2. based on preference rather than logic

arcane: known or understood by only a few; secret or mysterious

archaic: 1. antiquated 2. belonging to a time in the past 3. old-fashioned

archetype: 1. a perfect example or model for something 2. a prototype 3. the original pattern or model

arrogate: 1. to appropriate or take ownership of something without the power or right to do so 2. to claim something in a way that is illegal or unfair

articulate: 1. capable of expressing oneself in a clear and coherent manner 2. clear and well formulated language

ascetic: avoiding physical pleasures and living a simple and severe self-disciplined life, typically for religious reasons

assail: physically attack or severely criticize (someone or something) in a violent or angry way

assiduous: showing hard work, great care, and attention to detail; diligent

assuage: 1. make less intense or severe 2. appease or satisfy

astute: 1. crafty 2. possessing the ability to correctly judge situations and use one's observations to take advantage of the situation 3. shrewd

atrophy: 1. (of body tissue or a part of the body) a wasting or decrease in size because of disease, injury, or lack of use 2. gradual degeneration, decline, or decrease in effectiveness or vigor due to underuse or neglect

attenuate: reduce the strength, effect, density, amount, or size of something

attitude: 1. a feeling or an opinion; a mental position 2. physical posture 3. a way of acting, thinking or feeling

augment: 1. to increase something in size, quantity or value 2. to enlarge 3. to enhance

August: impressive; majestic; inspiring awe or admiration

auspicious: 1. showing signs or suggesting that a positive and successful future is likely 2. favored by fortune; prosperous; fortunate

austere: 1. strict or cold in one's behavior or appearance 2. serious 3. plain and lacking adornment, decoration or luxury

avarice: extreme greed to get or keep money or possessions; cupidity

balk: 1. to stop suddenly and refuse to continue 2. to hinder or obstruct 3. to hesitate 4. to stubbornly refuse or to be unwilling to continue or let something happen

banal: boring, ordinary, or not interesting because it contains nothing new, original, or unusual

bane: 1. the cause behind something negative such as death or distress 2. something or someone that greatly annoys someone 3. a curse

barrage: 1. a concentrated artillery bombardment to protect one's own advancing or retreating or to stop the advance of enemy troops 2. an artificial barrier across a river or estuary to increase the depth of the water, prevent flooding, facilitate irrigation, etc

bastion: 1. a fortified position or place 2. something protecting a specific belief, condition, attitude, or activity that is being threatened 3. a protruding part of a fort or castle

beguile: 1. to trick someone, convincing them to do something 2. to charm someone 3. to mislead

belabor: 1. to attack someone in either a physical or verbal way 2. to talk about something repeatedly or at great length and with great detail

beleaguer: 1. to harass or create trouble for 2. to besiege or surround a place, person or group with troops

belie: 1. give a false representation to; disguise or misrepresent 2. show to be false; contradict; prove false

belittle: 1. to disparage or put down 2. to consider something to be less important or make it seem less important 3. to scorn or disparage

bellicose: 1. hostile 2. aggressive and willing to fight 3. fond of arguing or fighting 4. quarrelsome

belligerent: inclined or eager to fight or argue; hostile and aggressive

benevolent: kind, generous, and helpful; charitable

benign: 1. not harmful 2. displaying kindness or gentleness 3. beneficial

bias: supporting or opposing a particular person or thing in an unfair way, especially in a way considered to be unfair

bilk: 1. to cheat or swindle someone, getting them to give you money you do not deserve 2. to slip away or evade

blandishment: a flattering or pleasing statement, speech, or action intended to flatter, coax, entice someone gently into doing something

blasphemy: 1. an action or a message which shows disrespect for a religion, God, or a holy object

blithe: 1. happy or joyous 2. carefree 3. casual and not worried about the possible negative consequences of one's actions

bombast: speech or writing that is meant to impress people but is not sincere, meaningful, or does not express things very clearly

brazen: 1. bold and shameless 2. having a loud, usually harsh, resonant sound

brevity: 1. briefness or shortness of duration 2. conciseness or using few words

broach: 1. to start to discuss a difficult or otherwise uncomfortable subject 2. to talk about a difficult subject for the first time

brusque: a very direct, brief, and unfriendly way in speech or manner

buoyant: 1. able to float 2. cheerful and optimistic

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burgeon: 1. grow, increase, expand or develop quickly 2. begin to grow or blossom (as buds or branches)

cacophony: a harsh, discordant, and unpleasant mixture of loud sounds

cadge: 1. ask for or obtain (something) for free 2. beg or get by begging

cajole: persuade by flattery or promises; wheedle; coax

callous: unkind, cruel, and without sympathy or feeling about the problems or suffering of other people

callow: 1. inexperienced, immature or young 2. lacking experience or judgment; not experienced in life 3. lacking feathers

calumny: 1. slander 2. a statement that is false, which is often made with malicious intent, looking to damage someone's reputation

camaraderie: friendship and trust between people in a group, often people who spend a lot of time together

candid: 1. direct or honest, even in situations when the truth is considered to be uncomfortable or unpleasant; frank; straightforward 2. impartial or unbiased 3. unrehearsed or informal

cantankerous: bad-tempered, quarrelsome, and often angry and annoyed

capacious: capable of containing a large quantity easily; spacious; roomy

capitulate: 1. surrender unconditionally or on stipulated terms 2. give up all resistance, usually because they are stronger than you

capricious: suddenly and unexpectedly changing mood or behavior without any good reason; impulsive and unpredictable

carping: 1. marked by excessive complaining or fault finding 2. critical or fault-finding 3. difficult to please

castigate: criticize someone or something severely

catalyst: 1. (Chemistry) a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction 2. somebody, something or an event that quickly causes change or action

catharsis: 1. a purging or cleansing of any part of the human body 2. a release of strong feelings or emotional tensions, especially through art

caustic: 1. capable of burning, corroding, destroying, or eating away by chemical action 2. severely critical or sarcastic, often in a funny or clever way

censure: strong criticism or disapproval of (someone or something), especially in a formal statement

chagrin: a feeling of being very annoyed, disappointed, or embarrassed because of failure, disappointment, or humiliation

charlatan: someone who cheats people by pretending or claiming to have more knowledge or skill than he or she possesses, especially in medicine; quack

chary: 1. cautious about taking risks or acting 2. choosy or sparing

chastise: 1. punish, especially by beating 2. scold or criticize someone severely for doing something wrong

chicanery: the use of clever, unfair, or dishonest methods to achieve a political, financial, or legal purpose

chimerical: 1. imagined or totally unrealistic 2. something conceived by a wild imagination

choleric: 1. hot-tempered and easily angered 2. prone to become angry quickly and/or easily

churlish: 1. rude, unfriendly, and unpleasant 2. difficult to work with or deal with

circumscribe: 1. draw a line around; encircle 2. restrict something such as power, rights, or opportunities within limits

cite: 1. to use information or exact words from another source; to quote 2. to use as an example

clairvoyant: having or claiming to have the power of seeing the future or see things that other people cannot see

clandestine: kept or done secretly and often illegal

clause: 1. a provision or stipulation in a contract or another formal document 2. a phrase containing a subject and a verb that is part of a larger sentence

coalesce: 1. grow together or into one body 2. unite or merge into a single body, group, or mass

coerce: 1. to convince someone to do something by threatening them or using force 2. to use force to get something

cogent: 1. an argument that is structured in such a way that makes it easily believable 2. something convincing 3. a logical argument

cogitate: 1. to meditate 2. to think deeply or carefully about something 3. to ponder 4. to ruminate

coherent: 1. consistent or logical 2. understandable 3. capable of explaining one's thoughts or ideas in a way that is easily understood 4. unified; sticking together

colloquial: 1. not formal 2. familiar and conversational 3. informal

collusion: 1. a conspiracy 2. secret cooperation or activities for illegal or fraudulent purposes

complement: 1. to go well with something 2. to make perfect; to complete

compliant: 1. complying, obliging, or yielding, especially to an excessive degree 2. meeting or in accordance with a set of rules, standards, or requirements

concise: 1. expressed in few words 2. clear and succinct 3. brief yet clear

concomitant: 1. something that is connected to something else, often occurring at the same time 2. something associated with another thing

condescend: 1. to submit or to do something that one considers to be below oneself 2. to be patronizing

conflict: 1. a fight or a disagreement between two or more parties 2. a struggle 3. an incompatibility

confound: 1. to surprise or confuse someone 2. to mix something up 3. to refute 4. to bewilder

congenial: 1. (of a person) agreeable, suitable, or pleasing in nature or character 2. (of a thing) pleasant or agreeable because suited to or adapted in one's spirit, feeling, temper, etc.; compatible

connoisseur: 1. an expert or a specialist in a certain matter 2. a discerning judge 3. an expert about a certain subject like food or art

conscientious: 1. controlled by or done according to, what one knows is right 2. working hard and careful to do things well

consensus: 1. majority opinion 2. an opinion or decision reached by all, or nearly all, members of a group 3. a general agreement

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conspicuous: 1. obvious; easily noticed 2. attracting attention, especially because it is strange or unusual

consummate: 1. perfect 2. indicating great skill or ability 3. superb; supreme

contempt: 1. a feeling that someone or something is unimportant and deserves no respect 2. disregard for something that is usually respected or feared 3. open disrespect or willful disobedience of the authority of a court of law or legislative body

contentious: 1. tending to argue or quarrel; quarrelsome 2. causing, involving, or characterized by argument or controversy

convention: 1. a formal political agreement 2. a gathering or meeting of people or professionals with a shared interest 3. a social custom

convivial: 1. (of an atmosphere or event) friendly, lively, and making you feel happy and welcome; festive 2. (of a person) cheerful and friendly; jovial 3. fond of eating, drinking, and good company; sociable; jovial

copious: large in quantity or number; affording ample supply; abundant; plentiful

corporeal: 1. of or relating to a person's body and not to spiritual or emotional states 2. of a material nature; tangible

corpulent: 1. overweight 2. fat 3. physically large

corroborate: strengthen, confirm or give support to (a statement, theory, etc.) by providing information or evidence that agrees with them

covert: 1. secretive or not openly shown 2. hidden; concealed 3. veiled

credulous: 1. gullible or easily deceived 2. overly willing to believe what one sees or hears 3. easily tricked or convinced

cryptic: 1. mysterious 2. possessing a hidden meaning 3. written or said using a special code or cypher

culpable: deserving blame or censure

cupidity: 1. avarice 2. a strong or excessive desire for possessions or wealth

cursory: quick and probably not detailed

dauntless: showing fearlessness and determination

dearth: a lack of something or an inadequate supply

debilitate: 1. make (someone or something) weak 2. reduce the strength of (someone or something)

deference: respectful submission to someone or something

defunct: 1. no longer in existence 2. dead 3. extinct

deleterious: 1. damaging or harmful 2. injurious to health

demur: 1. to hesitate because you have doubts or object to something 2. to refuse to do something 3. to voice opposition

denounce: 1. to condemn or accuse something or someone, often in a formal manner 2. to strongly and publicly criticize someone or something

deplete: 1. to cause a great reduction in the fullness or size of 2. to use up 3. to decrease the number of something

depravity: behavior that is immoral or evil; wickedness

deprecate: 1. criticize or express disapproval of (someone or something) 2. depreciate; belittle

depredation: 1. a predatory attack 2. an act of attacking, plundering, or preying upon

deride: speak of or write about (someone or something) in a way that shows you think they are stupid, unimportant, or useless; make fun of; ridicule

derivative: 1. developed from, based on, influenced by, or copied something else; derived 2. copied or adapted from others; not original; secondary

derive: 1. to get something from a source 2. to deduce 3. to show or trace the origin of

desecrate: 1. to pollute something with violence or spoil something, especially in reference to holy places

destitute: 1. extremely poor and lacking money, food, a home, or possessions 2. (often followed by of) destitute of: deprived of, devoid of, or lacking

deter: 1. to discourage or keep someone from doing something 2. to make someone decide not to do something by making them fear the consequences or repercussions

detrimental: 1. causing damage or injury 2. harmful

didactic: 1. intended to teach something, especially a moral lesson 2. too much inclined to teach others, often in a way that is annoying

diffident: modest or shy because of a lack of self-confidence in one's own ability, worth, or fitness

digress: leave or move away from the main subject being discussed temporarily in talking or writing

digression: a temporary departure from the main subject, especially in speech or writing

diligent: steady, hard-working, and careful in one's work or duties; industrious; painstaking

dirge: 1. a funeral song or march 2. a slow and sad song that expresses grief and/or mourning

discord: 1. disagreement among people or things 2. dispute or strife 3. a lack of harmony

discriminate: 1. to treat someone or a group of people differently due to their origin, race, sex or other trait 2. to distinguish or see the difference between things

discursive: 1. prone to straying from the main subject of a conversation or a lesson 2. rambling or superficially covering a wide range of topics

disdain: the feeling of not liking someone or something and thinking that they are not important and do not deserve any interest, respect, notice, response, etc.

disingenuous: 1. not straightforward; not candid or frank; insincere 2. slyly deceptive or misleading, typically by pretending that one knows less about something than one really does

disparage: 1. speak of in a slighting or disrespectful way; belittle 2. lower in rank or reputation

disparity: 1. a large difference between two or more things 2. inequality 3. incongruity

dispassionate: not influenced or affected by passion, emotion, or bias

dissemble: 1. hide your true feelings, opinions, motives, beliefs, etc. 2. hide under a false appearance; feign

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diurnal: 1. daily; happening every day 2. done during the daytime or related to daytime

diverse: 1. possessing various characteristics 2. distinct 3. diversified

divert: 1. to distract 2. to make something move in a different direction or on a different course 3. to use for a different purpose than the original 4. to amuse or entertain

docile: 1. submissive 2. easy to handle, manage or teach 3. compliant

dogmatic: an authoritative, arrogant assertion of unproved or unprovable principles as if they are certainly correct and cannot be doubted

dolt: 1. an idiot or stupid person 2. a dunce

dormant: 1. sleeping, lying asleep or as if asleep; inactive 2. not active or developing now, but it may become active or develop in the future 3. in a state of rest or inactivity; inoperative

drama: 1. a play that is performed in a theater, on television or on the radio 2. a literary work that deals with a serious subject 3. the art of performing

droll: 1. strange yet amusing 2. curious in a funny way

drone: 1. a male bee whose only purpose is to mate with the queen bee 2. a low and monotonous buzzing or humming 3. an aircraft that does not have a pilot on it and is controlled by someone on the ground 4. a lazy person who lives off of others

dubious: 1. doubtful 2. questionable 3. not totally good or honest 4. undecided

ebullient: cheerful, lively, and showing excitement; overflowing with enthusiasm or excitement

eccentric: 1. strange 2. unusual 3. unconventional and deviating from what is considered to be "normal" behavior

efface: 1. cause to disappear by rubbing out or wiping out; erase 2. cause (something) to fade or disappear

efficacy: the ability or power to produce desired result or effect

effusive: 1. expressing pleasure or gratitude in an unrestrained manner; gushy 2. overflowing 3. exuberant

egalitarian: 1. affirming, promoting, or characterized by the belief that all people should have equal political, social, and economic rights 2. a person who believes in the equality of all people

egregious: 1. something terribly bad 2. something surprisingly negative

elusive: 1. difficult to describe, find, catch, achieve, understand, or remember 2. cleverly or skillfully evasive

emaciated: 1. extremely thin due to great hunger or illness

empathy: the ability to understand and share the feelings, thoughts, attitudes, experiences, and emotions of another

empirical: relying on or derived from observation or experiment rather than theory or pure logic

emulate: try to equal or excel (someone or something you admire), typically by imitation

encomium: a speech or piece of writing that expresses glowing and warmly enthusiastic praise

enervate: 1. deprive (someone) of physical, mental, or moral energy or vitality 2. weaken

engender: produce, cause, or give rise to (a feeling, situation, or condition)

enhance: intensify, increase, or improve the quality, amount, extent, or strength of something, as in cost, value, attractiveness, effectiveness, etc.

enigma: someone or something that is mysterious, puzzling, and difficult to understand or explain completely

ensconce: 1. to make oneself comfortable or safe; to settle 2. to conceal something

ephemeral: lasting for only a very short time

epiphany: a moment when you suddenly see or understand the reality or essential meaning of something, usually initiated by some simple, homely, or commonplace occurrence or experience

epistle: 1. a missive; a long and formal letter 2. a literary work, such as a novel or a poem, that takes the form of a series of many letters

epitome: 1. a person or thing that is a representative or perfect example of a whole class or type 2. a summary of a written work; an abstract

equanimity: the state of being calm, stable, and composed, especially after a shock or disappointment or in a difficult situation

equivocal: 1. not clear and seeming to have two or more possible opposing meanings 2. ambiguous

erudite: having, containing, or showing a lot of knowledge or learning gained from reading

eschew: 1. to escape or avoid 2. to stop doing something or give something up 3. to intentionally keep away from something

esoteric: intended for or understood by only a small number of people, especially those with special knowledge

estrange: 1. cause (someone) to be no longer friendly or close to another person or group; make unfriendly or hostile; alienate the affections of 2. (as adjective estranged) (of a wife or husband) no longer living with their partner

eulogy: a speech or a piece of writing in praise of a person, event, or thing, especially one praising someone who has died

euphemism: 1. a word that is substituted for another, often unpleasant,offensive or upsetting, word

evanescent: soon passing away or fading from sight, memory, or existence like vapor or smoke; quickly fading or disappearing; lasting for only a short time

exculpate: show, declare, or prove that someone is not guilty of a crime or other bad action

execrable: 1. abominable or excessively terrible 2. detestable or easy to hate

exegesis: 1. critical analysis or explanation of a text, especially one from the Bible

exemplary: 1. extremely good and deserving to be admired and copied; serving as a model or example 2. (of a punishment) serving as a warning or deterrent 3. serving as a sample, instance, type, etc.

exemplify: 1. to serve as a typical example of 2. to use an example to illustrate or clarify 2. to embody

exhaustive: 1. complete; comprehensive 2. dealing with or studying all aspects 3. all-inclusive

expedient: helpful or useful in a particular situation and produces an immediate result or solution to a problem, even though possibly improper or immoral

expedite: 1. to hasten; to make something happen more quickly 2. to speed up 3. to do something efficiently as well as quickly

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expiate: 1. to accept punishment or pay the price for one's actions 2. to make amends

expose: 1. make (something) visible by uncovering it 2. lay open to danger, attack, harm, etc.; leave unprotected or without covering 3. make known, disclose, or reveal (something hidden, dishonest, etc.) 4. (expose oneself) display one's sexual organs in public

exposition: 1. a show where works of art are displayed for the public to contemplate 2. a clear, detailed, easy to understand explanation 3. a show in which many objects that are for sale are displayed

extol: praise (someone or something) highly, especially in a very enthusiastic way

extraneous: 1. not essential 2. not required to do something 3. unrelated; irrelevant

extricate: free or remove (someone or something) from a difficult or unpleasant situation (such as a trap, net, debt, peril, etc.); set free

facilitate: 1. to help make something happen 2. to assist 3. to make something easier

fallacious: 1. based on false information or ideas; erroneous; illogical 2. deceptive; misleading

fastidious: 1. very attentive to small details and wanting everything to be correct and perfect 2. difficult to please; exacting 3. wanting (clothes, possessions, and property) to always be clean, neat, etc.

fatuous: 1. something or someone that is silly, foolish or pointless

feasible: 1. achievable 2. capable of being done or accomplished 3. possible 4. likely

feign: pretend to feel or be affected by (a feeling, state, or injury)

felicitous: 1. suitable or carefully chosen for some purpose or situation; aptly chosen; appropriate; apt 2. marked by happiness or good fortune; pleasing and fortunate

fervid: 1. having or showing feelings, spirit, or enthusiasm, especially to an excessive degree 2. very hot; burning; glowing

fervor: 1. intensity of emotion 2. zeal 3. enthusiasm 4. great heat

fetid: 1. something that has a terrible smell, often as if it were decaying

fickle: 1. likely to change one's opinion; not constant 2. unstable; frequently changing

flagrant: 1. (of a bad action, situation, person, etc.) shockingly noticeable or evident; obviously offensive; glaringly bad; notorious; outrageous 2. notorious; scandalous

flamboyant: 1. excessively decorated 2. ornate 3. brightly colored and showy, often to draw attention to someone or something

florid: 1. flushed with red or pink 2. highly decorated

fortitude: mental and emotional strength in facing or enduring pain, difficulty, adversity, misfortune, danger, or temptation with courage

fortuitous: 1. happening by accident or chance rather than intention, especially in a way that is lucky or convenient 2. lucky; fortunate

fractious: 1. irritable and quarrelsome 2. difficult to control; unruly

frivolous: 1. not serious 2. unimportant 3. carefree in nature and superficial 4. trivial

frugal: 1. sparing or economical in use or expenditure; not wasteful; not spending freely or unnecessarily 2. simple, cheap, and not very big

furtive: done quietly, quickly and secretly to avoid being noticed

futile: 1. incapable of producing any result; unsuccessful, or useless; ineffective 2. of no importance; worthless

gambol: 1. to frolic or jump about playfully 2. to skip about

gargantuan: very large in size or amount; of a tremendous size, volume, or degree; huge; enormous; gigantic

garish: too bright or colorful (clothes or decoration) in an ugly way; tastelessly colorful, showy, or elaborate

garner: 1. to gather or to collect something, especially through great effort 2. to acquire or to amass

garrulous: talking much or too much, especially about things that are not important

genre: 1. a category or class 2. a specific style used in works of art that share common features

germane: 1. relevant to the argument or subject being discussed 2. fitting 3. related to a subject

goad: 1. to provoke someone 2. to urge someone on 3. to tease or incite a person or an animal

grandiose: 1. (in a good sense) large and impressive, in size, effect, grandeur, or extent 2. (in a bad sense) seeming or trying to seem very important, but really looking artificial or silly; pompous and showy 3. more complicated or elaborate than necessary

gratis: 1. free 2. without charge or price

gravity: 1. the force that pulls matter toward a center of attraction; the force that pulls matter to the ground 2. seriousness or solemnity

gregarious: 1. an extremely sociable person 2. an animal that tends to live in flocks or herds

guile: clever and usually dishonest methods to achieve something or to make others do what you want

gullible: 1. easily tricked because one is too trusting 2. quick to believe something, even if it's not true 3. naive

hackneyed: 1. (of a phrase, idea, fashion, etc.) have been said or used so often that they no longer seem interesting or original and have become boring and not interesting 2. not fresh or original

haughtiness: 1. arrogance 2. believing that one is better or more important than others 3. shameful pride

heed: 1. to listen to or pay attention, especially when referring to advice or warnings 2. to consider or take notice of

hegemony: 1. dominance, influence or control over others, especially in reference to political power

heresy: 1. a belief or opinion that is against the orthodox doctrines of a particular (especially Christian) religion and is considered wrong 2. any belief or theory (in politics, philosophy, science, etc.) that is opposed to established beliefs, customs, etc.

hierarchy: 1. the order of people based on their rank or status 2. a system where people or things are ranked based on their status

histrionic: 1. of or relating to actors, acting, or the theater 2. excessively theatrical, dramatic, or emotional in character or style; affected

hubris: excessive pride or self-confidence that offends people; arrogance resulting from excessive pride or from passion

hyperbole: 1. a figure of speech in which the speaker or writer exaggerates for emphasis 2. an exaggerated statement that is not intended to be taken literally

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iconoclast: 1. a person who attacks widely accepted ideas, beliefs, traditional institutions, etc. 2. a person who destroys sacred images used in religious worship or opposes to the religious use of images

ideology: 1. a set of ideas which influence or govern a person or a society

ignominy: public shame or embarrassment where you lose other people's respect; shame and dishonor; infamy

illusory: 1. not real despite appearing as if it's real 2. deceptive

image: 1. a picture or a visual representation of something 2. a mental picture of something

immutable: 1. not able to be changed 2. always the same

impartial: 1. fair and unbiased 2. refraining from supporting a specific side in an argument 3. not partial

impasse: 1. a situation that has no solution or escape, especially because the people involved cannot agree; a deadlock or a stalemate 2. a road or passage having no exit; a blind alley

impassive: 1. calm and not showing emotion 2. unaffected 3. expressionless and without feeling

impecunious: having little or no money

imperious: proud and unplesant attitude of assuming power or authority without justification and expecting other people to obey

impinge: 1. to have a negative effect on something, often limiting it 2. to collide with or hit something 3. to encroach upon something

impious: 1. disrespectful or not showing the proper respect, especially when related to religion 2. lacking the expected level of respect for authority

implacable: 1. someone with strong ideas which are impossible to change 2. unable to appease

implicit: 1. not explicitly said or explained; implied 2. suggested

impute: say or suggest that someone or something has a specific quality, especially a bad one, or is guilty of (something, especially something undesirable)

inadvertent: 1. accidental or not on purpose 2. not intentional 3. heedless

inane: 1. lacking sense, meaning, substance, or importance; silly 2. empty; void; vacant

incessant: 1. unending 2. never stopping or pausing 3. continuing constantly without interruptions of any sort

inchoate: not completely formed or developed yet; disorganized; incomplete

incipient: 1. just starting 2. in the beginning stages 3. beginning to appear

incoherent: 1. unclear; difficult to understand 2. rambling or disjointed 3. lacking unity

incorrigible: (of a person or their tendencies) not able to be corrected, changed, improved, or reformed, especially because firmly established

incredulous: 1. unwilling or unable to believe something, and usually showing this; doubting; skeptical 2. showing doubt or disbelief 3. incredible; not easy to be believed

indefatigable: 1. untiring and inexhaustible 2. not yielding to fatigue despite persisting in labor or effort for a long time

indifferent: 1. not caring about something; apathetic or indifferent 2. impartial 3. unremarkable or average

indigenous: existing, growing, or produced naturally in a particular place or climate; native

indolent: 1. disliking or avoiding work; idle; lazy 2. causing little or no pain 3. slow to heal, grow, or develop; inactive

indulgent: 1. allowing someone to do or have what they want, especially when it may not be proper, healthy, appropriate, etc. 2. indulging or inclined to indulge, especially when you should be strict

ineffable: too great, powerful, impressive, beautiful, etc., to be described or expressed in words

inevitable: 1. impossible to avoid, evade, escape, or prevent 2. sure to happen

inexorable: 1. incapable of being altered, swayed or stopped 2. not capable of being persuaded

infamous: 1. famous for a bad reason 2. notorious 3. having a terrible reputation

infrastructure: 1. the underlying features of something; framework 2. a country's basic systems, such as power, water or transportation

ingenuous: innocent and unsuspecting, artless, innocent, naive, candid or openly straightforward, especially because they have not had much experience of life

inhibit: 1. prevent someone from doing what he or she wants to do 2. prevent or slow down the activity, growth or occurrence of (something) 3. restrain, hinder, arrest, or check (an action, impulse, etc.)

iniquity: 1. complete immorality 2. wickedness or sin 3. something completely unfair 4. something unjust

innate: 1. a quality or ability existing in one from birth 2. an essential characteristic existing as part of the basic nature

innocuous: 1. that does not injure or harm 2. not likely to bother or offend anyone 3. not likely to arouse strong feelings or hostility

innovate: 1. to begin to use or to invent new ideas, concepts, products, equipment, etc. 2. to make changes

insatiable: 1. not able to be satisfied 2. never satisfied 3. very greedy

inscrutable: (especially of a person or their expression) difficult or impossible to understand or interpret; enigmatic; mysterious

insidious: 1. seemingly harmless yet, in truth, damaging and harmful 2. slowly acting and causing harm

insipid: 1. without flavor; tasteless 2. not interesting or exciting; dull; boring

instigate: 1. cause something to happen or begin, especially an official process 2. urge, provoke, or incite to some action, especially something bad

interminable: 1. continual 2. without end 3. tedious

intransigent: unwilling or refusing to change your opinions or behavior with no good reason

intrepid: very bold or brave and showing no fear of dangerous situations; fearless

inundate: overwhelm (someone or something) by sending or providing with a large amount of things at the same time

inure: 1. to make someone or something used to something unpleasant 2. to harden 3. to take effect

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invective: 1. severe or abusive language used to blame, criticize or insult

inveterate: 1. established or habitual 2. deep-rooted 3. settled in a habit and unlikely to change

invidious: 1. arousing anger or envy in others 2. causing animosity due to unfairness 2. offensive

irascible: becoming angry very easily

irksome: 1. annoying and tedious 2. irritating

ironic: 1. using words that literally mean the opposite of what the speaker or writer wants to say, especially when one wants to express humor

irony: a method of humorous or subtly sarcastic expression in which the intended meaning of the words is different from and often opposite to their literal meaning

itinerant: 1. moving from place to place, especially for work reasons 2. traveling

jargon: 1. special vocabulary or expressions that are difficult to understand and are exclusively used by a certain group of professionals 2. gibberish

jocular: humorous, amusing, or joking; funny or intended to make someone laugh

jubilation: great happiness or joy because something good has happened

juxtaposition: 1. the act of placing items side-by-side 2. the act of placing items close together, often to incite comparison

labyrinth: 1. something that is perplexing or confusing 2. a network of paths or passages that is considered to be confusing or difficult to navigate

lachrymose: 1. depressed; sad 2. tending to cry easily or frequently 3. causing tears

lackadaisical: feeling or showing a lack of interest, enthusiasm, or determination; carelessly lazy

lackluster: 1. dull in color or brightness 2. boring 3. unimaginative

laconic: using very few words in speech, writing, or expression; terse; concise

lampoon: 1. to criticize a person or a group through a humorous piece of writing or art

languid: 1. lacking enthusiasm, energy, or strength; without interest or spirit 2. (of a period of time) relaxed and pleasant 3. weak or faint from illness or fatigue 4. slow in progress; tardy

languish: 1. to become weaker 2. to suffer through a difficult, unwanted situation over an extended period of time 3. to long for something or someone 4. to be ignored or neglected

latent: exists but is not active, obvious, completely developed, or cannot be seen

laudable: deserving or worthy of praise

lax: 1. not as strict or strong 2. loose 3. not careful

legerdemain: 1. trickery or skillful deceit 2. a sleight of hand or cleverly executed trick

lethargic: 1. sluggish or drowsy; tired or slightly tired 2. apathetic

levity: 1. lack of seriousness, especially when strictness is required or appropriate 2. frivolity 3. fickleness

licentious: 1. amoral or lascivious 2. showing little to no respect for laws or social norms 3. not restrained

limpid: 1. transparent; clear 2. easily intelligible 3. serene and without worry

lithe: young, healthy, attractive, and able to move and bend in an easy and graceful way

loquacious: tending to talk a lot or too much

lucid: 1. very clear and easy to understand 2. clear; transparent 3. able to think clearly

lucrative: producing a lot of wealth or profit; profitable

lugubrious: very sad, mournful, dismal, or gloomy, especially in a way that seems exaggerated, ridiculous, or insincere way

magnanimous: 1. kind, generous, or forgiving in overlooking injury or insult, especially towards a rival or less powerful person; free from petty resentfulness or vindictiveness 2. high-minded; generous and noble

maladroit: 1. awkward 2. clumsy 3. inept 4. unskilled

malady: 1. an illness, disease or ailment 2. a major problem

malediction: 1. a curse or the act of saying a curse 2. speaking in a defamatory or evil way

malevolent: causing or wanting to cause harm or evil to another or others; malicious; evil

malingerer: 1. a person who fakes being ill in order to avoid work or a duty they are supposed to perform

malleable: 1. (of a metal or other material) able to be hammered, pounded, or pressed into various shapes without breaking or cracking 2. easily influenced, trained, or controlled; adaptable

marred: damaged or disfigured by injury or rough wear; spoiled; impaired

martinet: 1. a person who demands that others follow the laws or rules exactly 2. an extremely strict person

maudlin: 1. self-pityingly or tearfully sentimental, especially in a foolish or annoying way 2. foolishly tearful or sentimental, especially when you are drunk

maverick: a person who refuses to follow the customs or rules of or resists adherence to a group

mawkish: 1. sickening or nauseating 2. overly emotional or excessively sentimental, often in a false way

maxim: 1. a general truth that someone lives by 2. a rule of conduct 3. a proverb

meander: 1. to walk slowly and without purpose or without direction 2. to follow a winding path 3. to randomly wander

melancholy: a feeling of sadness, depression, and of being without hope, typically with no obvious cause

mercurial: 1. changing mood or opinion unexpectedly, suddenly, and often 2. volatile; erratic; unstable 3. lively and continuously active

meticulous: 1. extremely concerned with details 2. thorough and precise 3. finicky

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misogynist: a person (especially a man) who hates or strongly dislikes women, or who believes that men are much better than women

mitigate: make something less severe, serious, painful, harmful, unpleasant, or bad

moribund: 1. near death 2. near extinction or obsoleteness 3. stagnant or not active

morose: 1. austere and churlish 2. ill-tempered 3. bleak or dreary in nature 4. showing a gloomy attitude

motivation: 1. the enthusiasm, interest or reason for doing something

mundane: 1. ordinary and not interesting or exciting 2. relating to the world and practical matters instead of heavenly or spiritual ones; worldly; earthly

mutinous: 1. rebellious and uncontrollable 2. refusing to accept authority 3. unruly; disobedient

myriad: 1. a large number, often one that is too large to count 2. a great deal of people or things

nadir: 1. the point opposite the zenith on a sphere, directly below the observer 2. the lowest, worst point in a situation

nascent: 1. emerging or beginning to exist 2. recently formed or started 3. developing

nebulous: 1. vague; ambiguous; missing a definitive shape or definition 2. cloud-like 3. misty; foggy

nefarious: extremely wicked; criminal; evil; immoral; sinful

negligence: 1. failure to take the proper amount of care in a specific situation, often causing damage or harm 2. the state or quality of being negligent 3. carelessness

neutral: 1. impartial 2. not supporting either side involved in a conflict

noisome: 1. very unpleasant, offensive or disgusting, as an odor 2. harmful, dangerous, or injurious, especially to health

nominal: 1. insignificant 2. in name, but not in practice 3. very small

nostalgia: 1. homesickness; a longing for one's home or hometown 2. a feeling of sadness and pleasure when thinking about events or things from the past; sentimentality

novel: 1. new 2. different from anything that has previously existed 3. surprisingly new or unusual

noxious: 1. detrimental to living beings 2. something that is dangerous for one's physical health

nuance: a small variation in meaning, tone or feeling

nullify: 1. to void something, especially a legal agreement or decision 2. to make something useless or null

obdurate: 1. stubbornly refusing to do what other people want 2. stubbornly refusing to change your opinions, plans, or the way you do something despite what anyone else says, in a way that does not seem reasonable

obfuscate: 1. to make something more difficult to understand, often intentionally 2. to darken or make opaque 3. to make something obscure or confusing

objective: 1. fair and impartial 2. unbiased 3. based on facts and not affected by feelings 4. actual

oblique: 1. possessing a slanting or sloping angle or direction; inclined 2. not expressing something in a clear or direct manner

oblivious: 1. unaware or not conscious about something happening at that moment 2. forgetful 3. inattentive

obscure: 1. not famous or well-known 2. difficult to see 3. faint; vague 4. unnoticeable 5. mysterious

obsequious: 1. overly attentive or eager to flatter others 2. excessive obedience or flattery, often in order to gain favors from people of influence

obtuse: annoyingly insensitive or slow to understand explanations or situations quickly

ominous: 1. threatening or suggestive that something bad is going to occur 2. inauspicious

omnipotent: 1. possessing infinite power 2. having an enormous influence 3. all-powerful

omniscient: 1. possessing unlimited knowledge 2. knowing, or seemingly knowing, everything

opportunist: someone willing to take advantage of any opportunity to get ahead, often paying no regard to the possible repercussions

ostentatious: 1. pretentious or showy display, as of wealth, knowledge, etc., in an attempt to attract attention, admiration, or envy 2. designed to impress

palliate: 1. to lessen the symptoms of an illness 2. to make something less severe 3. to make something serious seem less important or negative

palpable: 1. so strong or so obvious that it can be felt 2. easily noticed 3. tangible

panacea: 1. a cure for any malady 2. something that people think will cure any difficulty or problem

panegyric: a speech or piece of writing in praise of someone or something

paradigm: 1. something that serves as an example or a model 2. accepted ideas or practices that are used in order to explain or view a shared reality

paradox: 1. something that sounds untrue or impossible but might be possible or true 2. something that contradicts itself or has opposite qualities

paragon: 1. someone or something that is perfect and is considered a model to be copied or imitated 2. the model of perfection or excellence

parameter: 1. a boundary that limits a specific action or process 2. a rule that controls something

parody: 1. a work of art such as a text or a play which is created to poke fun at or ridicule another work 2. to poke fun at someone or something

parsimonious: 1. cheap; frugal with one's money 2. unwilling to spend or give money

parsimony: 1. unwillingness to spend money when it is not absolutely necessary 2. extreme frugality

partisan: 1. strongly prejudiced in favor of something 2. one-sided or partial 3. someone who is devoted to a political party

pathos: 1. sadness or pity 2. the quality of something, such as a work of art, which arouses emotions such as pity or sadness

paucity: 1. a lack of something 2. scantiness 3. insufficiency in number; shortage

peccadillo: a small mistake, fault, sin, or offense that is not very serious or harmful

pedantic: 1. giving too much importance to formal rules or small details 2. making an excessive display of one's own learning

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pedestrian: 1. ordinary; dull 2. commonplace 3. undistinguished

penchant: 1. a clear inclination towards something 2. a taste for something

pensive: 1. contemplative 2. appearing as if lost in thought, especially about something serious or sad 3. thoughtful

peremptory: 1. someone who is overly assertive, to the point that they do not allow contradiction 2. someone domineering and totalitarian 3. someone who is offensively arrogant

perfidious: deliberately faithless; treacherous; deceitful

perfidy: 1. treachery or unfaithfulness 2. betrayal of trust 3. behavior or an event that shows that someone cannot be trusted 4. deceitfulness

perfunctory: 1. an action performed in a routine and careless manner 2. acting in a way which shows a lack of interest

peripheral: 1. something that is found on the outer edge or boundary 2. trivial or unimportant 3. something that is secondary or supplementary

perjury: 1. the act of lying or giving false information while under oath 2. the breaking of an oath or a promise

pernicious: 1. deadly 2. causing extreme harm, destruction or injury

philanthropy: the practice of giving money and time to increase the well-being of humankind, as by charitable aid or donations

philistine: 1. an uncultured person who does not like or understand art 2. a vulgar person

phlegmatic: not easily upset, excited, or angered to action or display of emotion; apathetic; sluggish

pious: 1. extremely religious 2. devout in one's religious beliefs 3. falsely devout or moral 4. dutiful to one's parents or other authority figures

pivotal: 1. of extreme importance 2. critical; crucial 3. significant

placate: make (someone) less angry or hostile, especially by making concessions or by being nice to them

placid: 1. peaceful and undisturbed 2. serene, with a lack of movement or activity 3. showing calm

platitude: 1. a trite, dull or unoriginal saying that is considered common information, despite the remark being said as if it were original information 2. absence of originality

plaudit: 1. applause 2. any sort of expression of praise or approval

plethora: a large or excessive amount of (something), especially a larger amount than you need, want, or can deal with; overabundance; excess

ponderous: 1. slow and clumsy because of great weight or size 2. very boring or dull 3. that seems heavy; bulky; massive

posthumous: 1. taking place after death 2. published after death

pragmatic: dealing or concerned with facts or actual practice in a reasonable and logical way instead of depending on ideas, theories or speculation; practical

precarious: 1. something that is not certain 2. risky or subject to chance 3. something which lacks security and is in a possibly dangerous situation

preclude: 1. to make something impossible or prevent 2. to deter or impede something from happening

precocious: 1. (especially of children) unusually advanced or mature in development, especially mental development 2. appearing or developing early

predecessor: 1. the previous occupant of a post or a role 2. something that comes before another related thing

predilection: 1. a personal preference towards something 2. a special liking of something

presumptuous: going beyond what is right or proper and not showing enough respect, especially because of an excess of self-confidence or arrogance

pretentious: trying to appear or sound as more impressive, successful, or important than someone really is, especially in matters of art and literature

prevaricate: 1. stray away from or avoid telling the truth by not directly answering a question 2. speak or act falsely or misleadingly

primeval: 1. primordial 2. related to or from the earliest time, especially when referring to the origin of Earth 3. original

procrastinate: 1. delay or postpone doing (something unpleasant or burdensome) until a future time, especially out of habitual carelessness or laziness 2. postpone or delay needlessly

prodigal: 1. carelessly and foolishly wasting a lot of money, time, or supplies, etc. 2. extremely generous; lavish 3. extremely abundant; profuse

prodigious: 1. very great or impressive in size, force, or extent; enormous 2. extraordinary; marvelous; wonderful; amazing

profound: 1. very deep 2. (of a state, quality, or emotion) very great 3. (of a disease or disability) very severe 4. (of a subject or idea) intellectually deep; entering far into subjects 5. (of a person or statement) having or showing deep thought or wisdom

profuse: 1. created or given in large amounts; generous 2. plentiful 3. given abundantly or magnanimously

prolific: 1. producing a large amount of something, especially fruit, offspring or works 2. bountiful, fruitful or productive

propitiate: 1. make (a god, spirit, or person) pleased, less angry, or regain their favor by giving or doing something that pleases them 2. appease; conciliate

propitious: 1. likely to result in or show success 2. something advantageous 3. benevolent; favorable

prosaic: lacking in interest, imagination, originality, or excitement; commonplace or dull; matter-of-fact or unimaginative

protagonist: 1. one of the main characters of a story 2. a leader of a cause or movement

protocol: 1. the rules and regulations governing certain situations 2. a record of a transaction 3. a formal diplomatic agreement between two or more countries

provincial: 1. from or related to a specific province 2. an unsophisticated person from the country 3. showing narrow-minded or unsophisticated thought or ideas

provocative: 1. provoking or tending to provoke, as to action, thought, feeling, etc.; inciting, stimulating, irritating, or vexing 2. causing people to become sexually excited

prudent: 1. careful, and using good judgment in practical matters 2. careful in regard to one's own interests; provident 3. cautious or discreet in conduct; circumspect; not rash

prurient: 1. expressing lustful behaviors or ideas 2. overly interested in sex

puerile: 1. childish, juvenile or immature 2. silly; foolish 3. related to or belonging to childhood

pulchritude: 1. physical beauty or attractiveness, especially related to women 2. moral beauty

punctilious: 1. exact in one's attention to detail; extremely correct with one's behavior

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pundit: 1. an expert or educated person on a specific subject 2. an authority on a specific subject who often makes public declarations on the subject

pusillanimous: lacking courage or determination; cowardly; faint-hearted; timid

quagmire: 1. a soft and wet piece of land which yields if stepped on 2. a complicated, dangerous or awkward situation

qualitative: 1. relating to the quality of something

quell: 1. to suppress or stop something, especially through the use of force 2. to pacify or soothe a previously problematic situation

querulous: often complaining, especially in a way that annoys other people

quiescence: quiet; still; inactive or motionless

quixotic: having or showing ideas, plans, hope, etc. that are not practical or likely to succeed; unrealistic and impractical

rampant: (of something bad) growing, happening, or spreading quickly and in an uncontrolled way

rancorous: bitter, long-lasting resentment; malicious resentfulness or hostility

rapport: a friendly relationship, especially of mutual trust, respect, or emotional affinity

raucous: loud, harsh, and disturbing noise

raze: 1. completely destroy a city, building, etc. 2. scrape or shave off; erase

rebuttal: the act of proving that something is not true by using arguments or evidence; response with contrary evidence

recalcitrant: 1. (of a person ) stubbornly refusing to obey authority, discipline, rules, orders, etc. 2. (of an animal ) refusing to be controlled

rectify: 1. correct (something that is wrong) or make something right or better 2. correct by calculation or adjustment

redolent: 1. sweet-smelling; fragrant; aromatic 2. strongly smelling of 3. (redolent of/with) strongly reminding you of something

redundant: 1. superfluous 2. unnecessarily wordy 3. not needed

refute: 1. to prove that something is not correct or true 2. to deny something

relegate: 1. put (someone or something) into a lower or less important rank or position 2. refer, commit, or hand over for decision, action, etc. 3. (UK) moved down to a lower division

relevant: 1. related to the issue being discussed or debated 2. pertinent 3. connected to an issue

remorse: 1. strong pain or sadness about something you have done and feel guilty about 2. regret

renounce: 1. give up (a claim, right, or possession, etc.), especially by formal announcement 2. give up (a cause, bad habit, way of life, etc.) voluntarily 3. reject; disown

reprehensible: unacceptable, very bad, and deserving to be criticized

reproach: express disapproval of, criticism of, or disappointment in (someone), especially for not being successful or not doing what is expected

repudiate: 1. refuse to accept or reject with denial 2. disown

rescind: end, revoke, repeal, or cancel (a law, agreement, order, or decision, etc.)

resignation: 1. the act of leaving a job or position by formally resigning 2. the formal, often written, declaration that one is leaving a job or post

resilient: (of a substance or object) bouncing or springing back into shape, position, etc. after being pulled, stretched, pressed, bent, etc. 2. able to quickly become strong, healthy, happy, or successful again after an illness, disappointment, or other problem

resolution: 1. a decision that is made by a group through a voting process 2. a personal promise to oneself 3. a formal statement of intent or opinion

respite: 1. a short break or delay from work or an unpleasant experience 2. a postponement of punishment

resplendent: 1. brilliant; dazzling; bright; shiny 2. beautiful 3. impressive

reticent: 1. not willing to tell people about one's thoughts, feelings, and personal affairs 2. uncommunicative, restrained, or reserved in style 3. reluctant; unwilling

revere: 1. to honor or respect someone very much 2. to venerate or worship

rhetoric: 1. a style of speaking or writing that is intended to influence people and that may not be honest or reasonable 2. the art, skill, or study of using language formally and effectively in speaking or writing

rhetorical: of, relating to, or concerned with the art of speaking or writing that is effective or intended to influence, persuade, or impress people and that may not be honest or reasonable

ribald: 1. vulgar or indecent 2. rude or lewd, but in a humorous way

ruminate: 1. to think about something carefully over a long period of time 2. to meditate on 3. to chew on cud

ruse: 1. a trick with is used with the intent of confusing or deceiving someone 2. a plan used to hide one's own intentions

sacrosanct: 1. something that is considered to be sacred 2. something considered far too important to be subjected to changes

sagacious: having or showing acute mental discernment and keen practical sense and the ability to make good practical decisions

sagacity: the quality of being discerning, sound in judgment, and farsighted based on practical knowledge and experience

sage: 1. a plant used to flavor food 2. having or exhibiting wisdom and calm judgment, especially as a result of great experience

salient: 1. of utmost importance; prominent; notable 2. protruding beyond a line or surface 3. jumping

salubrious: 1. healthy 2. wholesome 3. beneficial to one's health

salutary: 1. beneficial 2. favorable to one's health 3. bringing about good effects or improvement

sanctimonious: pretending to be morally better than other people; excessively or hypocritically pious

sanguine: cheerfully optimistic, hopeful, or confident, especially in a difficult situation

sardonic: 1. demonstrating a lack of respect for another person or what they have said or done 2. mocking 3. sneering 4. cynical

sate: satisfy (an appetite, desire, etc.) fully

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satire: the use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize someone or something and make them seem foolish, weak, bad, etc.

saturnine: very serious and unhappy; gloomy; taciturn

scanty: 1. very small in size or amount, and less than is needed; insufficient; not enough 2. (of clothing) revealing; skimpy

scrupulous: 1. very careful about doing something correctly, giving a lot of attention to details 2. careful about doing what is honest and morally right

scrutinize: examine or inspect (something) closely, thoroughly, and very carefully

servile: 1. too eager to serve, please, or obey others 2. of a slave or slaves

shift: 1. a slight change in something 2. a change 3. a period of approximately eight hours during which workers perform their jobs

simile: (the use of) a phrase that describes something by comparing it to something else, always including the words 'as' or 'like'

simulate: 1. to reproduce a situation 2. to feign 3. to do something that looks as if it is real when it truly is not

skeptical: 1. having, showing or marked by doubt 2. doubting 3. questioning

solace: give comfort to in sorrow, misfortune, or trouble

solicit: 1. to ask for something, often through a formal process 2. to petition

solicitous: 1. showing care, attention, or concern about someone's health, feelings, safety, etc. 2. showing anxious desire; eager

sophistry: the clever use of reasoning or arguments that seem true but are really false, especially with the intention of deceiving

soporific: 1. causing sleep 2. drowsy

specious: seeming to be right or true, but in fact wrong or false

sporadic: 1. occurring at irregular intervals; not constant or regular; patternless 2. appearing singly or at widely scattered localities, as a plant or disease

squander: spend or use (money, time, supplies, or an opportunity) wastefully or extravagantly

staid: of a settled, unadventurous, sedate, and steady but boring character

stanza: 1. a part of a poem that is presented in paragraph form

static: not moving, acting, or progressing, especially in an undesirable or uninteresting way

stereotype: 1. an oversimplified way of looking at something 2. a simple and unwavering idea about what a certain person or group of people are like

stoic: 1. not showing emotion or complaining, even when something bad happens 2. unemotional 3. indifferent to pleasure and pain

strategy: 1. a detailed plan of action 2. a way to approach a specific goal

strident: 1. (of a sound) loud, unpleasant, and rough 2. presenting a point of view, especially a controversial one, in a way that offends some people

stringent: 1. strict, rigid 2. binding 3. constraining 4. extremely limiting

structure: 1. a free-standing building made from different parts 2. the way in which something is organized 3. the quality of being organized

style: 1. a way of doing or expressing something 2. fashion 3. quality or attractiveness in design

substantiate: 1. support with proof or evidence 2. give concrete form or body to; convert into substance; embody 3. give substance to; make real or actual

subterfuge: 1. a plan or device used to conceal or hide something 2. a trick or dishonest way of doing something

subtle: 1. thin, tenuous, or rarefied, as a fluid or an odor 2. not obvious, and so slight as to be difficult to notice, see, detect, or describe 3. able to make fine distinctions 4. making use of clever and indirect methods to achieve something

subversive: trying to overthrow, destroy, or damage an established system or institution by persons working secretly from within, especially an established government or political system

succinct: 1. concise and clearly expressed 2. expressed in a short and easy to understand way

supercilious: behaving or looking as though you are better or more important than everyone else, and that their opinions, beliefs, or ideas are not important

superficial: 1. being at, on, or near the surface 2. shallow; not profound or thorough

superfluous: being more than is needed, useful, or wanted; surplus; excessive

surfeit: 1. an excessive or too large amount or supply of something 2. overeat or feed to excess 3. disgust caused by excess

surreptitious: 1. obtained, done, or made in a secret, stealthy way, especially because it would not be approved of; clandestine; secret or unauthorized 2. acting in a secret, stealthy way

sybarite: 1. a person who is quite fond of luxury and pleasure

sycophant: a self-seeking person who attempts to win favor by flattering rich or influential people

symbol: 1. a sign 2. a shape, object or picture which is used to represent something 3. something used to represent or show an idea

tacit: 1. expressed or understood without being directly said or expressed; implied 2. unspoken; silent

taciturn: tending not to speak much; not liking to talk; uncommunicative

tangible: 1. palpable 2. able to be felt or touched 3. real

tantamount: 1. of an equal amount of value, force, etc. 2. having an equal effect as something 3. equivalent to

tedium: 1. boredom 2. tediousness 3. the state of being boring over an extended period of time

temerity: 1. recklessness or disregard for danger or consequences 2. foolish boldness 3. audacity

temperate: 1. emotionally calm and controlled 2. not extreme in behavior or language 3. (of weather conditions) neither very hot nor very cold

temporize: act evasively in order to gain time, avoid argument, or postpone a decision

tenacious: 1. holding firmly 2. that clings; adhesive; sticky 3. holding together firmly; cohesive 4. very determined to do something; persistent; stubborn

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tentative: 1. provisional 2. not fixed or positive 3. experimental 4. hesitant or without confidence; uncertain

tenuous: 1. thin, weak, and easily broken; not certain, definite, or strong 2. very thin or slender in form, as a thread; insubstantial

terse: 1. short or curt, often in a way that is interpreted as unfriendly 2. concise and to the point

theme: 1. the topic or subject discussed in a book, essay, conversation, debate, etc. 2. a subject that is brought up frequently 3. the style upon which something is based

therapeutic: 1. possessing curative powers 2. used to make someone healthier or happier 3. producing a positive effect on the body or mind

thesis: 1. the subject to be written about or debated in an essay 2. a long study written while one is studying one's doctoral degree 3. the main idea of a written work

timorous: 1. lacking confidence or nervous 2. showing fear 3. demonstrating timidness

torpid: 1. dormant or acting in a slow way due to laziness or sleepiness 2. deprived of all power 3. dull

torpor: a state of not being active and having no or very little energy or enthusiasm

tortuous: 1. full of twists, turns, or bends 2. complicated, long, and confusing

trenchant: 1. clear-cut 2. forceful, vigorous, or severe especially when referring to one's arguments or ideas

trepidation: a feeling of fear or worry about what is going to happen because you think something bad or unpleasant is going to happen

tribulation: 1. a great trouble, difficulty, or suffering 2. something that causes great trouble, difficulty, or suffering

trite: 1. (of a remark or idea) not fresh or original 2. not interesting or effective because of overuse or repetition; worn out by constant use; common

truculent: easily annoyed or angered and always ready, eager or quick to argue or fight

truncate: 1. to make something shorter by cutting off one of its ends

tumult: 1. a loud noise that is produced by a large group of people 2. a violent or turbulent uprising; a riot 3. confusion

turgid: 1. pompous or too serious; grandiloquent 2. swollen or bloated

ubiquitous: present, or seeming to be present everywhere, especially at the same time; omnipresent

unctuous: 1. oily or greasy 2. overly friendly or interested behavior that is often clearly insincere

uniform: 1. a set of clothes that must be worn to be in a specific school or do a specific job 2. an outfit worn by people from a same school or doing the same job

unprecedented: 1. new and never been seen or done before 2. without precedent

unwitting: 1. (of a person) not aware of the full facts; not knowing; unaware; ignorant 2. without knowing or planning; unintentional

upbraid: 1. to harshly criticize or scold 2. to strongly reproach someone for their behavior

urbane: (of a person, especially a man) polite, courteous, and confident in a smooth, polished way

usurp: seize and hold (power, a position, property, rights, etc.) by force or without legal right

utilitarian: 1. useful; practical; not for show 2. capable of being used 3. created with its utility, not its beauty, in mind

vacillate: 1. to change opinions or show indecision 2. to sway or stagger in an unsteady manner 3. to oscillate

vacuous: 1. having or showing a lack of intelligence, interest, purpose, or thought 2. without contents, meaning, importance, or substance; empty

vapid: 1. showing no intelligence or imagination, and therefore very boring 2. lifeless, dull, or boring 3. lacking taste or flavor

vehement: 1. powerful 2. forceful 3. intense; impassioned 4. expressing strong feelings and great energy

venerable: deserving respect, especially because of age, wisdom, character, long use, etc.

venerate: regard or treat (someone or something ) with great respect

veracity: 1. honesty, accuracy, truthfulness 2. habitual or constant truthfulness

verbose: using or containing more words than are necessary, and therefore long and boring

vertigo: 1. a dizzy sensation 2. a loss of balance or dizziness which is often caused by being up high 3. a dizzy or confused state of mind

vicarious: 1. living an experience through another person's description instead of doing the action oneself 2. suffered by one person in place of another, especially referring to punishment

vicissitude: 1. changes that occur throughout one's life, often making things worse; the ups and downs of life 2. mutability or the natural process of change 3. alternation between opposite things

vigilant: carefully watchful and alert to detect and avoid possible danger or difficulties

vignette: 1. a short story 2. a small decorative design found at the start or end of a chapter in a book 3. a small image or drawing which fades into its background

vilify: 1. to slander or spread negative information about 2. to use negative language about someone

vindictive: having or showing a strong or unreasoning desire for revenge

virtuoso: a person who has special knowledge or skill in in some fine art, especially playing a musical instrument

virulent: 1. (of a disease or poison) extremely infectious, malignant, or poisonous; deadly 2. (of a pathogen, especially a virus) highly infective 3. bitterly hostile or antagonistic; full of hate and violent opposition

vitriolic: 1. cruel and hateful language 2. marked by notable criticism or sarcasm

volatile: 1. (of a substance) vaporizing or evaporating quickly 2. likely to change suddenly and unexpectedly or suddenly become violent or angry; unstable; explosive

voluble: 1. talkative; speaking with enthusiasm 2. fluent 3. expressed in many words 4. garrulous

voluminous: 1. large in volume 2. bulky 3. great in extent 4. long and detailed; enough to fill volumes (writing)

voluntary: 1. not obligatory 2. unenforced 3. given or done by choice

wanton: 1. a cruel, malicious or violent action done, shown, used deliberately, unprovokedly and unjustifiably 2. careless; reckless

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wary: cautious or nervous about possible dangers or problems; watchful

willful: 1. intentional 2. done on purpose, especially with the intention of causing harm 3. deliberate 4. stubborn

wry: 1. using or expressing dry humor, often with a touch of irony 2. (of a person's face or features) temporarily twisted in an expression of disgust, disappointment, or annoyance 3. abnormally bent or turned to one side

zany: 1. crazy or strange 2. funny due to its buffoonish behavior 3. unusual in a humorous way

zeal: great energy, effort, and enthusiasm, as in working for a person, cause, or object

zealot: 1. a fanatically committed person who is uncompromising in pursuit of their religious, political, or other ideals 2. an excessively zealous person; fanatic

zenith: 1. the point in the sky that's directly over one's head 2. the highest point or peak

The following simple English grammar tips and tricks will help you to learn and memorize English grammar rules and speak correctly. If you are on this site for English grammar practice, these tips will really help you. Let's start.

Invest your time in learning

It surely takes some time to learn English. There is no shortcut way to learn it. Some websites may say that they will teach you English in seven days or one month. These are false offers. Invest some time in learning and practicing. Your English skills will surely improve.

Speak, speak, and speak!

Try to speak English the same way you write it. Do not worry about grammatical mistakes. The more you practice, the less mistakes you will make and the more fluent you will be. So, practice daily and do not be afraid of grammatical errors.

Slow down your speaking speed

Your confidence will go down if you try to speak fluently from the very beginning. Give yourself some time. Start with slow speaking speed and increase your speed over time as you make more progress day by day. Slowing down speaking speed has another benefit — you will get enough time to make sentences in your mind before you speak.

The more you practice speaking, the more confident you will be.

Use Mobile apps

Luckily, there are many English learning apps available. Some are free and some are paid apps. If you are a smartphone user, you should install some of these apps in your mobile phone. You can at least install one app and start practicing. A mobile app is a very handy and useful thing to learn at your convenient time. You can start with free apps.

Install and use a dictionary app in your mobile

There are several free dictionary apps that will help you to learn proper pronunciation and new words. It is highly possible that your smartphone already has a dictionary installed. Use it or install a better one.

Try to get a good bilingual dictionary for better understanding. Besides using a mobile app, you can buy and use a good bilingual dictionary. A good bilingual dictionary is always a good investment for personal improvement.

Learn English idioms and phrasal verbs

Idioms and phrasal verbs are very common in everyday English conversation. If you do not know them, you may fail to understand the correct meaning of what the other person is saying. So, do not ignore them. Try to learn the most common English idioms and phrasal verbs.

Listen to news bulletins

Almost every radio and television channel broadcasts news bulletins. If you have a smartphone, radio or television, you can listen to these English news bulletins. Besides learning the correct pronunciation, you can learn correct English. Listening to these bulletins will also improve your fluency. This is a common technique used by English learners.

Read out loud

How does your English sound? The pronunciation style of some people is very bad. But there is a simple and easy way to fix improve pronunciation. Take a newspaper or any other script written in English and read out loud. This way you can hear and test your own pronunciation. If you are not happy with your own pronunciation, keep practicing and your English pronunciation will surely improve.

Learn new words daily

The more words you learn, the better you can understand English and express yourself. You may be surprised to know that learning only the basic words can help you to speak English that is used in communication everyday.

Learn sentences

Besides learning common words, try learning common sentences used in everyday English communication. This will give you a huge boost in your learning efforts.

Write every day

When you write, do not be shy of your mistakes. Try to write at least a few paragraphs, ideally at least one page. It is a great practice to use your newly learned words and practice grammar. This will also improve your writing skills.

Watch English movies

These movies will help you to learn proper pronunciation and improve your understanding of English. When you see how native English speakers speak English, your mind will automatically start copying the style. You can try to speak like them at home to understand the quality of your pronunciation and fluency.

Language swap

There are several websites where you can find people who are native English speakers and want to help your learn English if you teach them your language. This is free and can be a great way to learn from native speakers. Many learners are using this method and you should give a try.

Go to a mentor

A mentor can help you to guide in the right direction. She can measure your progress and suggest whatever you need to improve. You can regularly discuss about your improvement and weakness with your mentor. Oftentimes, she can help you. Your mentor can be someone who is good at English. She can be your school / college / university teacher, your friend or any person good at English.

Try to correct your mistakes

It is common to make mistakes. Every time you make a mistake, write it in a separate piece of paper. Make a list of mistakes. Check your mistakes from time to time and try not to make these mistakes again when you practice. These mistakes are clear and good indications of your weakness in English.

Give yourself time to think

Whenever you make a mistake, you should think how you can avoid this mistake from next time. Take time and assess your progress and weakness.

Be an advance learner

Try to learn advance English grammatical rules and vocabulary. Never be happy with your progress. The more you learn and practice, the better English skills you achieve.

Start with "Tense"

There are mainly three types of tense - past, present and future. Usually, verbs indicate the correct form of each tense. Besides learning tense, you should memorize some verbs too. Do not worry. It is interesting and easy to learn the necessary verbs.

Learn common pronoun usage

Do you know the difference between the common subject pronouns and object pronouns such as I/me, we/us, he/him, she/her, they/them?

We use subject pronouns such as I, we, he she, they when the subject is doing an action. Usually, we use subject pronouns at the beginning of a sentence. Example: I cannot remember the story.

But we do not start a sentence with object pronouns such as me, us, him, her, them. Example: Call him.

Active voice and passive voice

Many English learning students get confused here. In active voice, the subject performs an action. In passive voice, the subject and the object of a sentence swap to form the correct sentence.

Incorrect: The cinema was gone to by me.

Correct: The cinema was enjoyed by me.


A preposition defines the relationship between an object and its surroundings. Without the proper use of prepositions, your English will sound weird. Luckily, there are only a handful of prepositions and these are easy to learn.

Learning new words can be a matter of fun but you need to follow some effective methods to learn new words faster. Read them all in the list below.

Read, read, and read

You will find many new words that you need to learn in novels and literary works. You will be most benefited if you read classic literary books. You should also read magazines and newspapers because these are also good sources of new words that you need to learn. These sources often use high quality English that often contain both common and advance words.

Vocabulary wordbooks

In the bookshops, you will find vocabulary wordbooks that range from beginner to advance levels. You can buy one or more depending on your requirements. These books make it a lot easier to learn because these books come with a complete list of words that is suitable for your level.

Use a journal

During your learning time, you will surely find new words. Add them in your journal. This list will slowly grow. But this journal will help you to measure your progress and show where you need to improve. The journal can inspire you to learn more and faster if you find that you are going slow.

Learn some new words everyday

It is easier and more realistic to digest some new words everyday. If you are determined to learn some new words everyday, you will be surprised and happy to see your progress after a month. The progress will surely motivate you to keep using this learning method.

Use flashcards

Using flashcards is a common way to learn new words. You maybe know that you can buy flashcards from bookshops. Some learners find it easier to learn new words with flashcards. You should give a try too.

Set a target

Set a target that is achievable and realistic. Whatever happens, try to achieve your target at any cost.

Look up new words

Have you found a new word? Get in the habit of looking up words you do not know and immediately do this. If you leave it for later, you may completely forget about it and miss the chance to learn it. A quick way is to look the words in the dictionary installed or available in your smartphone. Another alternative is — look up the word on a search engine like Google.com and you will find the meaning of your desired word in several high quality websites.

Play some word games

If you search online, you can find several word learning games. Some of these games are developed in such a fun and entertaining way that you will not get bored even if you use them hours after hours. These games are not hard to find out. Vocabulary learners usually learn using crossword puzzles, anagrams, word jumble, Scrabble, and Boggle. You can try one of them or all of them.

Use your newly learned words

Take a piece of paper and make one or more sentences for every word you just learned. This way every word will be more memorable. It can take some time but it definitely has its benefits.

Engage in conversations

When you engage in conversation, use your newly learned vocabulary. It can be interesting because the other person will be surprised to see your improved vocabulary power / skills. Besides, you will be able to express / communicate in a better way.

Take vocabulary tests

There are several websites that give you free access to their website so that you can test your vocabulary. This website also helps you to test your SAT vocabulary, GRE vocabulary, IELTS vocabulary, TOEFL vocabulary, ACT vocabulary, TOEIC vocabulary, GMAT vocabulary, PTE vocabulary, ECPE vocabulary, MELAB vocabulary, MCAT vocabulary, and PCAT vocabulary.